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In oiyier to show the progress and development of Alpena 
county, it will be necessary to go back to the earliest days of 
its settlement by white people, and to show the circumstances, 
conditions and influences by wliich they wtre surrounded at 
tbe time of such settlement, as these have much to do with 
their future prosperity and happiness, and determines in no 
small degree the character of their popular institutions. And 
hence this work would be incomplete without referring to the 
History o£ the State of Michigan — at the time and since its ad- 
mission info the Sisterhood of States. 

An act was passed by Congress, on the 15th day of June, 
1836, for the admission of Michigan as one of the States of the 
Union; but with the then humiliating condition, that it would 
relinquish its claim to the southern boundry, (which was a 
narrow strip or land extending from Lake Michigan to Lake 
Erie, and claimed by Indiana and Ohio, ) and accept instead 
thereof, the Upper Peninsula, which was then an unexplored 
region, and considered of no probable value. In December, of 
the same year, a paired convention met and agreed to the con- 

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ditioDs imposed by Congress ; and Michigau was admitted as 
one of the States of the Union, on the 26th of January, 1837. 
In the winter of the same year, Canada became involved in a 
quasi rebellion, and the country becoming too warm politically 
for the healthful exercise of the writer's American proclivities, 
he resolves to quit tho Queen's Dominions, (as he was only a 
visitor, ) and he crossed the dividing line, at Port Horon, into 
the State of Michigan, which was then undergoing some mate- 
rial changiis, financially and politically. 

Steven T. Mason was elected first Governor. He was a 
yonng man, of more than ordinary ability, — had been Secretary 
and acting Governor of the Territory while in his minority; 
and now, with the young State, was merging into manhood and 
freedom, with many wants and ambitions to satisfy; and the 
young State and its young Governor, without experience, launch- 
ed out into many extravagances, and committed many errors, 
which resulted in financial ruin to the State and its inhabitants. 
There was some question at the time, as to who got the money ; 
but there was no disputing the fact that the State got the ex- 
perience. At this time, (1876), when we have railroads and 
telegraph lines traversing the State in every direction, it is im- 
possible for the present generation to fully comprehend the sit- 
nation or feelings of the people of our State in those days. 
Then there was no railway communication with the east ; nor 
was there any convenient way of traveling by land between 
Detroit and Chicago. 

A large portion of the State of Michigan, at this time, (1838,) 
was au immense forest, the most of which was unsurveyed, and 
but little known. It was, therefore, not only desirable, but 
necessary, that the lauds should be surveyed and explored ; and 
that certain improvements should be carried into effect, in order 
to develop the resources of the country. Uncle Sam was doing 
bis part. The public lands were being surveyed by Deputy 
United States Surveyors, who done the work under contracts, 

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ALPENA County — peeliminaet remarks, 5 

at a certain price per mile. In the fall of 1838, the writer 
hired with Messrs. Alvin and Austin Burt, who had a contract 
for surveying lands on the Aubetsies river, in the northwest- 
ern part of the Southern Poninsnia. We started— fourteen in 
number, and four pack horses — from Washington, in Macomb 
county, and traveled west through the counties of Oakland, 
Shiawassee, Livingston, Ionia and Kent, to Grand Rapids. 
Sometimes we traveled in a road, and other times in an In- " 
dian trail; and much of the way through wood and marsh, with, 
out trail or road. 

The first night out, we camped where Teuton now is. This 
was the first time that the writer had ever camped out in a tent, 
but not the last. Here was a log house and a small clearing. 
The next day we passed through Shiawassee county, near the 
village of Owosso, where there was a clearing in the oak woods, 
and a small cluster of buiMings; but the people were in excel- 
lent spirits and good working order, for the survey of a rail- 
road had been made through their town only a short time before, 
and they felt coufldent that it would be made in a very short 

W^e struck another clearing near the Lookingglasa river, but 
clearings were "few and far between" on our line of march. In 
passing through Livingston county, we were terrorized by 
snakes. lu the marshes and low lands we found in profusion 
a species of rattlesnake called the massasauga, many of which 
we killed, and which kept us in constant dread. On the plains 
we had some experience with the blue racer. One day, one of 
the advanced party saw a large snake of this kind, and gave 
chase, but the snake kept at a safe distance ahead of the man, 
running with his head high above the ground and small bushes. 
Finding lie could not overtake the snake, he gave up the chase 
and started to return, when, to his astonishment and terror, be 
found the snake returning also, and with a loud yell, he started 
on double quick to reach the rest o£ the party. When, almost 

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breathless, he came to a halt amoug us, there was his enakeship 
at a respectful distance, his head above the bushes, his tongue 
flashing derision at the whole party. He looked immensely 
good natnred, and as though he was king of snakes, and was 
out on a reconnoiter. Capt^ Darine Cole waB one of the party 
and one of the pat^kers, and who proposed to unpack one of the 
horses and surround and capture the snake, as it was a very 
large one, or ran it down with the horse. But his euakeship 
seemed to understand what was transpiring, as well as the 
aucient one in the Garden of Eden, and before we were ready 
to surround and take liim iu, he respectfully withdrew, and 
could not be found. 

In Ionia county, we met Douglass Houghton, the then State 
Geologist. He was ou one o£ the early geological surveys. 
He had an Indian for a packer, and his pack-horse was a coal- 
black one, and his 'camp tins were new and bright and were 
hung on both sides of the animal, making a singular appear- 
ance, and rattling when he traveled, as though he belonged to 
a charivari party. In due time we reached Lyons, which we 
found quite a lively little town in the woods, containing about 
five hundred inhabitants, who were hoping for and expecting a 
railroad in a very few yeaia. From this place to Grand Kapids 
we traveled in a very passable road for a wagon, and saw some 
settlements, placed at long intervals. We halted at Grand 
Bapids a short time, to make some purchases and recruit our 
provisions, as this was the last village we would see for many 
months. Grand Hapids, at this time, (183S,) had the appear- 
ance of a growing little village, with say fifteen hundred inhab- 
itants. It had water communication, by boats ou the river, to 
Grand Haven. It had a bank, a sawmill and two painted 
buildings, which were used as stores. It was the center of 
considerable trade in general merchandise and peltry. From 
this place to Aubetsies river, a little over one hundred miles 
north, was a howling wilderness, with only an Indian trader at 

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the mouth ot Muskegon river, a small sawmill at White river, 
aucl a Missionary Station at Manistee. 

The writer has given a short sketch of this trip across the 
State, in order to show the condition at this time (1838) of 
that strip of country over which the palace cars of the Detroit 
& Milwaukee railway now {1876) travel, and conveying the 
traveling public with dispatch and comfort. The travel west, at 
this time, was very large, and most of it was by eteanaboats, 
around the lakes. Some of the boats were large and commo- 
dious, and although they would not compare in structure with 
those of the present day, yet they conveyed passengers with 
comfort, safety and dispatch. 

Judge Campbell, in his excellent work, "Outlines of Political 
History of Michigan," says, in regard to improvements; "The 
first State legislature was chiefly directed to the development 
of the resources of the country. Roads were laid out in every 
direction, and placed under local supervision, so that the peo- 
ple most nearly interested might have means of preventing 
neglect and dishonesty. Railroads were chartered whenever 
asked for. The University and School lands were put in market 
on long time. The State piepared, as soon as possible, to enter 
upon a general system of internal improvements, whereby all 
parts of its jurisdiction would be made readily acceptable and 
be broiigbt within easy reach of market and business facilities." 
"One of the first and best schemes devised to further the de- 
velopment of the State resources, was the organization of a 
complete geological survey. In February, 1837, an act was 
passed for the appointment of a^ State Geologist, to conduct 
such survey, and annual suras, increasing from $3,000 the first 
year, to §12,000 the fourth, were appropriated. Doctor Doug- 
lass Houghton was selected to fill the office." # * • 

"In addition to some smaller debts, it was determined to bor- 
row five million of dollars to expend in various public works. 
It was expected that by the aid of tliis sum and such other do- 

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nations as might be received from the United States, three 
trunk railroads could be built across the State, two canals made, 
several rivere improved so as to be navigable, some small rail- 
roads finished, and a ship-canal opened round the falls of the 
Ste, Marie river. 

"A Board of CommiBsioners of Internal Improvements had 
already been appointed. On. the 20th of March, 1837, this 
Board was directed to survey three railroad routes across the 
peninsula. The first was the Michigan Centra], from Detroit 
to the mouth of St Joseph river, in Berrien county. The sec- 
ond was the Southern, to run from the mouth of the Kiver Rai- 
sin, through Monroe, to New Buffalo. The third was the North- 
ern, to run from Palmer, or Port Huron, to Grand Rapids or 
Grand Haven. A purchase was to be made of the Detroit & 
St. Joseph railroad, which had gone partly through Washtenaw 
county. Five hundred and fifty thousand dollars were appro- 
priated to these roads at once, — four hundred thousand for the 
Central, one hundred thousand for the Southern, (both of which 
included private railroads to be purchased,) and fifty thousand 
for the Northern. ■ Twenty thonsand was appropriated for sur- 
veys of a canal, or combined canal and railroad, from Mt. Clem- 
ens to the mouth of the Kalamazoo river, a caual from Saginaw 
river to Maple or Grand river, and river surveys on the St. 
Joseph, Kalamazoo and Grand rivers, for slack water naviga- 
tion. Seventy-five thousand dollars more were to be expended 
on some ofithese and other worksi" 

When the geographical position of the State is studied, it will 
beseeu that this scheme of improvements was not without 
merits, was within the range of possibilities and usefulness, and 
within the means of the State, had the five million loan been, 
properly negotiated and expended. The State, at the time of. 
its admission, was out of debt; was entitled to five per cent 
from the sale of the pnblic lands, which then amounted to" 
$450,000, and it had received and was receiving large donation^ 

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of land from the general Government; and these, with the iive 
million loan, and the accumulating earnings of the improve- 
ments as they progrt'ssed, would have been ample for finishing 
the contemplated work ; and this wil! more fully appear, when 
we take into consideration that raili'oada were not then as perfect 
andcostly as at present. JudgeCampbellsaysinregard to them: 
"In a level country, well supplied with wood, the cost of build- 
ing and ironing a railroad was very trifling, and its rolling 
stock was also cheap and scanty. The original capital stock of 
the Detroit & St, Joseph Railroad Compauj', the corporation 
which began the Michigan Central railroad to Marshall, was 
recorded in 1846, as having been two millions of dollars. In 
private hands it would probably have been leas; and the capi- 
tal stock of the Sl)O00,O00, aided by the earnings properly 
managed, would have been adequate, according to the plans 
first devised, to build the road; although the subsequent im- 
provement in track and stock vould have made new arrange- 
ments necessary, if the road had been built as slowly as was 
then customary. Twenty miles a year was, in those days, rapid 
railroad building. The passenger care were email vehicles, 
holding no more than from eighteen to twenty-four passengers, 
and not much, i£ any, heavier than the large stage coaches. 
The iron was flat bar iron, from half to three-fourths of an inch 
thick, spiked on wooden sleepers which were lightly tied, and 
on tracks not perfectly graded or heavily ballasted. The loco- 
motives weighed from two to six or seven tons, and drew cor- 
responding loads." 

The emigrants and settlers in Michigan were mostly from 
New England and the State of New York ; were intelligent and 
enterprising, and well calculated to advance the material inter- 
ests of the State, and to build up strong communities. They 
had unbounded confidence in the disposition and ability of the 
State to perfect its plans of improvements, and had not the re- 
motest idea that there was a possibility of a failure. They pur- 

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chased lands in the midst of the forest, but on the lines of the 
proposed railroads and canals, and commeueed to clear farms, 
erect mills and factories, and to bnild up towns and cities, with 
the hope and expectation that the day was not far in the future 
when they would hear the breathings and snorts of the iron 
horse. Their wealth was more in the future than the present, 
and depended largely, if not wholly, upon the State completiog 
its railroads and canals. Another institution, which depended 
for its life and usefulness on the internal improvements, was 
unlimited banking. It was a scheme calculated to help develop 
the resources of the State, but the foundation of its security 
rested in real estate, the value of which depended entirely up- 
on the completion of the improvements [>romised by the State. 

Judge Campbell, in speaking of the law, says: "In 1837, a 
general banking law was passed, which was supposed to contain 
better securities than any other similar scheme, and included 
the safety fund plan, in addition. Any persons residing in a 
county of the State, including among them at least twelve free- 
holders, could organize banks of from $50,000 to $300,000 
capital;, and care was taken that at least one-third of the stock 
should always belong to county residents in good faith, and for 
their own use; and on executing the preliminaries and paying 
in thirty per cent in specie, they conld proceed to business. 
Ten per cent was payable on the stock every six months, until 
all the capital waa paid in. Before beginning banking busi-- 
ness, bonds and mortgages, or personal bonds of resident free- 
holders, satisfactory to the County Treasurer and Couutj' Clerk, 
were to be filed with the Auditor General, to the full amount 
of the circulation and indebtedness. Neither the circulation 
nor the loans and discounts were to exceed twice-and-a-half the 
amount of the capital stock." 

During the years 1837, '38, '39, hope and espeetation were 
standing on tip-toe. Surveying parties, employed by the State 
and United States, could be seen moving in every direction, 

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and large flistrictB of the State were surveyed and brought into 
market. Large, anxious crowds assembled at the land sales, 
many of whom, for want of better accommodations, lived in 
tents during the time the sale lasted. At these sales, large 
purchases were made, sometimes as high as thirty thousaud 
acres a day, and the utmost activity was manifested in every 
part of the State, in regard to its general improvements, and 
everybody had liis pockets filled with engravings which passed 
current for money. But in 1840, a reverse came, like the shock 
of an earthquake; and but very few in the State escaped with- 
out injury. When the people learned the true state of affairs, 
and that the State would go no further with its improvements, 
all business became at once paralyzed, Keal estate dropped to 
nominal values, while the banks that were secured by it became 
worthless. No greater commercial calamity ever overtook the 
people of the State. Those who were considered wealthy in 
money and property, suddenly found they had but very littlo. 
Their property was in the midst of a forest, without a hope of 
communication, and they could not work, for they had nothing 
to work with, as their money was worth less than their real es- 
tate. The laborer could get nothing for his work, and what he 
had already earned was worth but little, if anything. Many 
made their exit from the State, while others, like the Roman 
Senators, resolved to stay and die with their property, as they 
could not sell it, and afterwards their property made them rich, 
and thus it was some could not be poor when they would. 
Others refused to be rich when they could. 

In the spring of 1839, the surveys in the State of Michigan 
were continued. Lewis Clason and Thomas Patterson, of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, had the sub-division of townships 27, 28, 29 and 
30 north, and from range 4 east, to Lake Huron; and John 
Hodgson, Esq., of Detroit, Michigan, had the contract to run . 
township lines north of the third correction line. The writer 
hired with Mr. Clason, for eighteen dollai's per month, to carry 

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the chain, which was considered fair wages in those days. The 
parties of Clasoii and Patterson left Pontiac, in Oakland coun- 
ty, Michigan, in the early part of April, 1839, some of them in 
a lumber wagon in advance, and the balance with the pack- 
horses, brought up the rear. We traveled with the wagon as 
far as Pine Run, as it was then called, and this being the ter- 
minus of the wagon road, each one was compelled to "make 
his pack and play it alone." The road from Pine Run to Sag- 
inaw City was in progress of construction, under the system of 
internal improvements, and was one of continual variation, 
changing from dry land to low, wet swamp, and back to dry 
land, and from an Indian trail up through every stage of pro- 
gress, to a good wagon road. 

After much hard traveling, we reached Saginaw river, and 
were ferried across to Saginaw City. Here was an isolated town 
of about seven hundred inhabitants, who were all very hopeful 
and sanguine in the future growth and prosperity of the place. 
Their only communication with Bay City, or Lower Saginaw, 
as it was then known, and the outer world, wee on the Saginaw 
river; in (he summer by small boats and vessels, and in the 
winter by sleighs and dog trains on the ice. They had a large 
public house, a bank, two or three sawmills, and as many stores. 
The principal occupation of the people was fishing, hunting, 
lumbering, and trading with the Indians for furs, which were 
then very plentiful in the northern part of the Southern Penin- 
sula. Harvey Williams and a man by the name of McDonald 
were the principal Indian traders, who made yearly visits along 
the shore, to buy furs; and sometimes came as far north as 
Thunder Pay river. From this place we went down the river 
to Lower Saginaw, now Bay City, where we found a half dozen 
or so of frame buildings, a warehouse, a dock, and a small steam 
sawmill, called the "McCormick Mill." We camped in a beau- 
tiful oak grove where the city of AVenona— West Bay City — is 
now located. Here Mr. Ciason chartered an open scow of about 

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eighty tons burden, and the property of a man named Ump- 
stead. This was the largest craft to bt? chartered at that time, 
in Lower Saginaw. 

It is remarkable to observe with what sagacity the early set- 
tlers made their locations. There is scarcely a place that the 
writer has visited, not even the solitary log house situated in 
the midst of the forest, that has not grown to be a place of con- 
siderable importance. 

After staying at Bay City a few days, to let the ice move out 
of Saginaw Bay, we embarked on hoard this champion of the 
Sagiuaws, for Thunder Baj'. Mr. Clasoii and his party were 
landed at Au Sable river, and Mr. Patterson and his party con- 
tinued their voyage to Devil river, in Thunder Bay, where they 
built a depot for the supplies. The survey work was all finish- 
ed in due time, and we al! met at the depot, near the mouth of 
Devil river, to wash up, and to determine how to get home. 
"While we were thus engaged, Pete Wa Watnm, an Indian from 
the Au Sable river, came along with a large birch canoe, and 
Mr. Clasou hired him to take all of us to Thunder Bay Island, 
where we could take a boat for Detroit; excepting the packers 
and their horses, who would travel to Presque Isle, and take a 
steamboat there. This was the writer's first sailing in a birch 
canoe, and on the waters of Thunder Bay. On Thunder Bay 
Island was a lighthouse, kept by Jessey Muncy, a very clever 
man, who lived there with a large family, and done some fish- 
ing with gill-nets. Here we were treated very kindly by Mr, 
Muncy and family ; and after feasting on whitefish for a few 
days, we were pat on board of a schooner, which was bound for 
Detroit. William Ives, Esq., who subsequently run the first 
lines of survey for the United States in the Territory of Ore- 
gon, was second in the party and compass-man for Mr. Clason. 
Messrs. Clason and Ives had the misfortune to have all their 
spare clothing stolen, so that when they came out of the woods 
they had no change of clothes. The writer's clothes, fortunate- 

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ly being in another place, escaped the bands of the thief, and 
so be was favored with a presentable suit, and enough to lend 
Mr, Clason, who was nearly of the writer's size, to make hira 
look respectable. When dinner was ready, — this being the first 
meal on bo«rd the schooner,— Mr. Clason and the writer were 
notified for the first table, with officers, while Mr. Ives, who 
rauked much higher in employment than the writ-er, waited for 
the second table, with sailors and common hands, simply be- 
cause he bad the misfortune to have his clothes stolen. The 
thief, perhaps, with the stolen clothes on, was seated at first 
table somewhere, and enjoying himself hugely, in the company 
and confidence of the wise and good. This little episode taught 
the writer the fact, which he then noticed, and from which he 
never has been compelled to retreat, that people, as strangers, 
are judged by their fellows, more by the purity of the clothes 
they wear, than the purity of heart, character or employment. 

This was the first Government survey made in Alpena coun- 
ty. It was conceded by the whole survey party, that the entire 
tract that we had surveyed was worthless ; that the Government 
would never realize enough from the sale of the lands to pay 
for the surveying. Mr. Clason was so confident of this, that 
be said: "I live in Cincinnati, and am able to do what I 
agree, and I will give any of you a good, wan'anty deed of any 
township of land that we have surveyed, for your wages, and 
will bind myself to purchase the land of the Government for 
you, should the land ever become so valuable that the Govern- 
ment could sell it to other parties." Not one of the party 
would accept Mr. Clasou's offer. This is not the only report 
of the kind on record. Judge Campbell, in his History of 
Michigan, has the following: "The first necessity of the coun- 
try was more people. No lands had been surveyed before the 
war, except the old private claims. In 1812, among other war 
legislation, au act was passed, setting aside two million of acres 
of land in Michigan, as bounty lands for soldiers. As soon as 

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the war was over, and circumstances permitted, Mr. Tiffin, the 
Surveyor General, sent agents to Michigan, to select a place 
for locating these lands. Their report was such as to induce 
him to recommend the transfer o£ bounty locations to some 
other part o£ the United States. They began on the boundary 
line between Ohio and Indiana, which was the western limit of 
the lands surrendered to the United States by the Indian treaty 
of 1807, and following it north tor fifty miles, they desenbed 
the country as an unbroken series of tamarack swamps, bogs 
and sand barrens, with not more than one acre in a hundred, 
and probably not one in a thousand, fit for cultivation. Mr. 
TiiSn communicated this evil report to the Commissioner of 
the General Land Office, Josiah Meigs; and he and the Secre- 
tary of War, Mr, Crawford, secured the repeal of so much of 
the law as applied to Michigan. They wore stimulated by a 
SL^cond report of the surveyors, who found the country worse 
and worse as they proceeded. In April, 1816, the law was 
changed, and lands were granted instead, in liliuois and Mis- 
sauri. This postponed settlement, but it saved Michigan from 
one of the most troublesome sources of litigation which has 
ever vexed any country. It was in that way a benefit. But 
the report of the surveyors is one of the unaccountable things 
of those days. Surveyors are usually good judges of land, and 
not likely to be deceived by the water standing on the surface 
of the ground where the nature of the vegetation shows the soil 
cannot be marshy or sterile." 

In the spring of 1840, the Surveyor General gave contracts 
to survey about half of Alpena county, the whole of Prestjue 
Isle county, the most, if not all, of the county of Cheboygan, 
to John Hodgson, Sylvester Sibley, Henry Brevoort and Henry 
Mullet, all of whom, with tbeir surveying parties, left Detroit 
soon after the opening of navigation in the spring, on the 
steamer Madison, for Presque Isle. The writer was employed 
by John Hodgson, as an assistant sun'eror or compass-man. 

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Hodgson had the sab-division of towns 31 and 32 north, and 
from range 4 east, to Lake Huron shore. "We all had a jolly 
time on the beat going up, and wore all landed, with our sup- 
plies, at Presque Isle. This was a wooding station for the 
steamboats going round the lakes, and the only inhabited spot 
. at that time, between Mackinaw and Bay City. It was also the 
firat fishing station on Lake Huron shore, north of Saginaw 
Bay. The fishermen used hooks, seines and gill-nets, and had 
considerable trade with the boats, in furnishing them with fresh 
fish. After stopping a few days at Presque Isle, to make ar- 
rangements for leaving the supplies, and packing them to the 
work, which supplies were to be carried on the backs of men 
and horses, the several parties started for their work. The 
writer, in making the survey near the mouth of the An-a-ma- 
kee-zebe, or Thunder river, as it was called by the Indians, dis- 
covered the site of a house that had been burned, some square 
timber, and an excavation for a mill-race ; and on enquiry since, 
was told that Mr. Lonseman, from Mackinaw, with other par- 
ties from the State of New York, had, some time prior, attempt- 
ed to build a sawmill at that pJace, and were driven away from 
their purpose by the Indians. In running the section line be- 
tween sections 22 and 23, on approaching the river near the 
foot of Second street, city of Alpena, we were discovered by 
some Indians, who were camped a little further down the nver, 
and who were all drunk. They consisted of the Thunder Bay 
band, excepting Sog-on-e-qua-do and his family, who were 
camped at the "Os-Bow," a peninsula made by a large bend iu 
Thunder Bay river, and who gave us our dinner of bgiled stur- 
geon the day before, which we all ate with a relish. It was the 
first sturgeon the writer had ever eaten, and being very hungry, 
thought it very nice. As soon as the Indians saw us, they be- 
gan to gather themselves up as best they could, and approach- 
ed us, having the old chief, Mich-e-ke-wis, or Spirit of the 
West Wind, at their head. They all looked very sour, and did 

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uot return our salutations. The old chief came very close to 
the writer, and said, in the Indian language: "White man no 
good. This place is all mine; you go away." The writer re- 
plied that the Great Chief at Wasbingtou had sent ue to run 
lines and explore the country, and we did not like it, and as 
soon as we had done our work we would go away. He, finding 
I could answer him iu his otfe language, and noticing that the 
writer gave some order's to the men, which they obeyed, said to 
the writer; "Are you chief?" and being answered in the af- 
firmative, he said, "Xou are welcome to do your work." Up to 
this time not a word had been spoken by any of the accompany- 
ing Indians; bat when the old chief said "You are welcome to 
do yonr work," their countenances changed, and they all said, 
•'aw-ne-gwi-naw," whieh is "certainly." Then each one took 
our hand and said, "bo-zoo." The old chief then said: "We 
have had a big drunk; we can give you nothing to eat or drink, 
for we have used up all the women left us to eat; but if you 
will go to the wig-wam, I will show you my regalia." We 
went with him, and he showed what the white man seldom gets 
a look at. The old chief took from a trunk, a large broadcloth 
blanket, worked with beads and ribbons, a large otter skin to- 
bacco bag, called a "koosh-kip-it-aw-gun," and elaborately 
worked with beads and ribbons, a large peace-pipe, beaded leg- 
gings, cap and moccaainB. He had a splendid worsted sash, 
which was presented to him by the British Government, and 
beaded belts to wear round his leggings, to keep them iu place, 
and some other things of minor importance. For the writer 
this was a feast. We borrowed the Indians' only canoe, and 
crossed the river to camp, putting it out of their power to an- 
noy ns during the night. In the morning, we used the Indi- 
ans' canoe to cross the river, and after establishing the corner 
of sections 23, 24, 20 and 27, in township 31 north, of range 8 
east, and doing some meandering on the bay and river, we bid, 
as we supposed, a long adieu to the first experiences at the 

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mouth of "Tbunder liver." Tlie Thuiidei- Bay baud of Indians 
then numbered about twenty-five, with Mich-e-ke-wis as council 
chief. He had seen nearly, if not quite, one hundred winters; 
was admired by his people for the wisdom of his counsel, and 
had much influence over them, iu favor of the British Govern- 
ment, whose friend he was, and continued to be as long as he 
lived. He drove Mr. Douseman '•hd his party away from the 
river, and showed the same disposition toward the writer, who 
probably saved himself ami party some trouble, in being able 
to speak a little of the Indian language. He was the father of 
a large family, some of whom were then — 1840 — grown up 
men and women. The names of his older sons were "\Va-ga- 
maw-ba, Ba-ga-nog-ga, and Nee-zhe-was-waw-ba. If his rec- 
ord was right, he had seen one hundred and ten years, ere he 
went to his Father, in tbe beautiful "hunting grounds towards 
the setting sun." He once said to the writer, at Ossineke: "I 
remember when these pine trees here were very small." Some 
four or fiye years prior to his decease, which occurred about 
1857, he called all bis children and people together, and told 
them that he was nearly blind, and no longer of any value to 
his family or his people. He then gave one of his sons, whom 
he had educated for his successor, his regalia, before described, 
and installed him in his office as council chief, and presiding 
over all their religious ceremonies. He then distributed his 
goods among his children; and never after was he seen dressed 
in anything but a common Indian blanket. He thus pre- 
pared himself to meet the "pale horse and rider," worthy the 
admiration of those who, iu a Christian point of view, think 
themselves much wiser and better, and who style him 
"The poor lodlaii, whose uiitutorBd mind 
Seee God Id the clouds, aod heara Him in the wind." 
iSog-on-e-qua-do, or Thunder Cloud, was a war chief. He 
was an 0-taw-waw. He was not very well liked by his people, 
on account of his temperance procliYities; he was very much 

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opposed to the Indians getting druiit, and he lectured them too 
severely to please them. He was the only Indian the writer 
knew who could keep whiskey in his wig-wam and not get 
drunk. He was brave and independent; iioue o£ his people 
ever wished to oppose him, or measure war cluhs; nor did any 
avaricious trader ransack his shanty for furs, without his con- 
sent; and he could qniet an Indian drunken row in "double 
quick." He was honorable and scrupulously honest, as the 
following incident will show: In 1848, the writer cut and put 
up two stacks of wild hay, at Squaw Point Late in the fall, 
Sog-on-e-q«a-do's boys were playing near one of the stacks, 
and set it on fire, and it was consumed. He immediately came 
to see the writer, at Ossineke, and enquired of him what the_ 
certain stack of hay was worth. The writer, not knowing what 
his object was, mantioned the value of the hay to him. Sog- 
on-e-qua-do then said: "My boys, in their play, set it on fire 
and have burned it, and I have brought you these furs to pay 
you in part for it, and nest spring I will bring you the balance." 
Being somewhat surprised at so beautiful an example of the 
Golden Kule, by a savage, the writer said to him, that, as he 
had been honest enough to come and inform him of the fact, 
and had offered to pay for the hay, he, the writer, would charge 
him only what the hay cost him to put it up; and that the furs 
he had brought would pay the amount. He looked at the 
writer a moment, and then putting his hand on his breast, said: 
"I am a man ; I will pay the balance in the spring." The win- 
ter passed and spring came, and so did Sog-on-e-qua-do with "a 
bundle of nice furs, worth much more than the whole stack of 
hay, and threw them down, and insisted that the writer should 
take them for the balance on the hay. Here is an act that 
challenges our admiration, and which is worthy to be placed on 
record as parallel with that instructive one related in the twen- 
ty-third chapter of Genesis, where Abraham bought the ceme- 
tery of Ephron, among the children of Heath. He bought a 

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lot iu Alpena, and built a frame house on it. He also built a 
Binall house at Squaw Point, where he lived much of his time, 
using a cook stove in his house, and cultivating a small piece 
of ground. He died, believing in the traditions and religion of 
his fathers, and was buried after the manner of the Indians, 
except that the Bev. F. N. Barlow preached a funeral sermon, 
and he was laid in the cemetery of the whites. Shortly after 
he was buried, his grave was desecrated by some unscrupulous 
thief, who took from the grave his gun and some other things 
that had been deposited in the grave with him, to use on his 
journey to the hunting ground beyond the setting sun. He 
left one son, by the name of No-qnash-cum, who lives on the 
_Bame lands that his father occupied before him. 

Ba-zhiek-co-ba, or Put Down One, was a strong, athletic 
man, who supported himself and family entirely by hunting 
and fishing. He was much in favor of the Oanadian Govern- 
ment; despised the idea of living like a white man, and loved 
his "Scho-ta-waw- boo, "—fire soup — dearly. 

Naiu-a-go, or Ant, was a good hunter and a companion of 
Ba-zhick-co-ba iu his trapping and hunting expeditions, and 
lived after his fashion. These men and their families compos- 
ed the Thunder Bay band of Indians. 

After finishing up the survey work with Mr. Hodgson, the 
party went out to Presque lele. Here the writer hired with 
Sylvester Sibley, to help him finish up his surveys. The im- 
provements at Presque Isle were owned by Lemuel Crawford, 
oE Cleveland, Ohio, and consisted of a dock, store, and frame 
dwelling, a log barn, ^nd a few log shanties. They were all 
built on Uncle Sam's land, which had not yet been surveyed, 
and therefore it was thought advisable by those in command, 
that they should be on the best of terms with the sui-veyors. 
As the survey of the harbor and its vicinity 'was assigned to 
the writer, he was treated with very kind regard by the propri- 
etor and bis people. Here the writer made the acquaintance 

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of Simeon M. HoUler, William CulHngs and Robert McMullen. 
They were mechanical geniuses, and well calculated to live in 
and promote the growth of a new country. Mr. McMullen had 
the greatest variety of talent, working when occasion required, 
in the blacksmith shoji, the carpenter shop, the cooper shop, at 
boat bailding, and millwriting. Mr. Holden subsequently 
moved to Thunder Bay Island, where he built the first frame 
dwelling in Alpena county, in 184G. He was the first perma- 
nent settler in the connty, his occupation being fishing with 
gill-nets. After residing on the island a few years, be moved 
to where Harrisville is now located, where, in company with 
Crosier Davison, he built the first sawmill in Alcona county. 
After working the mill a few years, he sold his interest in the 
property, and moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan, where he was ^ 
waylaid, murdered and robbed of five hundred dollars. Messrs. 
Cullings and McMullen still survive, and reside in Alpena and 
Alcona counties. 

It was late in the fall when the surveyors finished their work 
and returned to Presque Isle, on their way home. It had been 
blowing a galb of wind for some time, so that no boats had 
gone up the lakes for a while, and only one or two was ex- 
pected down that season. Among the steamers expected down 
was the Madison, which brought the surveyors up, and whicli 
was a high pressure boat, the exhaust of which could be heard 
for fifteen miles away. We were all very anxious to get this 
boat, for should we miss it, we raight-be compelled to travel on 
foot to Flint, if not to Pontiac, a distance of about two hundred 
miles. A watch was set, day and night, to catch the first sound 
of the Madison's eshaust and signal her in, and to make doubly 
sure of lier calling. After anxiously waiting for about a week, 
at 9 p. M, the watch yelled "Steamboat," and for ten minutes 
every one shouted at the top of his voice, "Steamboat! Steam- 
boat!" Such a shout Presque Isle never heard before, and 
probably will never hear again. The Madison came into the 
harbor, and we all boarded her for Detroit. 

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The Goveroment lands in Alpena and adjoining counties were 
offered for sale by the United States, iu 1843. In the fall of 
the same year, the writer again visited Alpena county, accom- 
panied by a man by the name of Youngs, whom the writer hir- 
ed as a hunter and trapper, for the purpose of studying the na- 
ture and habits of animals, and obtaining their skulls as speci- 
mens of phrenology. Yonngs stayed in the woods until Feb- 
niary, when be came out to Thunder Bay Island, leaving the 
writer alone in the forest, who stayed until May, and obtained 
many fine specimens, some of which he now has, of the otter, 
beaver, lynx, marten, raccoon, fisher, bear and mink. These 
animals were then very plentiful, and easily taken. The writer, 
learned much in regard to the nature and habits o£ these ani- 
mals, and unlearned very much that he had learned from books 
prior to his going into the woods. 

Many who write works on Natural History, are not them- 
selves acquainted with the animals or things they describe, for 
they have never interrogated or examined nature for themselves, 
but have taken tiieir knowledge from the schools, aud the re- 
positories of dead men's hearsay knowledge and speculation. 
The writer's inexperience in trapping did not afford him a very 
large quantity of furs, but what pleased and paid him for his 
trouble and privation, was the fact that he found, upon exam- 
ination, and comparing the phrenological formation of the 
skulls of those animals he had studied, with their nature and 
habits, they harmonized beautifully, aud in every respect with 
each other, and established in the mind of the writer, beyond 
a cavil, the fundamental principles of phrenology. If any man, 
however skeptical he may be, but willing to know truth, will go 
with me into the forest, and there study the habits of the beaver 
aud the fisher, and compare their skulls with their habits, and 
with each other, he can not hesitate one moment to acknowledge 
the principal truths claimed for that science which enables ns 
to know ourselves. In order to further prosecute his studies, 

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and at the enme time make a living, the writer prepared him- 
self as well as he knew how, for the further study of aniraale, 
and trapping for their furs. He hired a Frenchman, who pre- 
leuded to understand trapping, but when the little schooner 
was ready to sail for Thunder Bay river, he refused to go. 
The writer, supposing he would find some one on his way, that 
he could hire, continued his jouroey, without finding any one 
to hire, and was landed on the 18th day of September, 1844, at 
the mouth of Thunder Bay river, alone. From that time to the 
20th of May following, he saw not the face of a white man — for 
he had no glass — or heard the crack of any rifle but his own. 
On coming down to the mouth of the river, in the spring, he 
found "Washington Jay, his wife and daughter, and a man by 
the name of William Dagget, who had moved there late in the 
fall, from Thunder Bay Island, for the purpose of making some 
staves for fish barrels. They built a log house, near Second 
and Kiver streets, in Alpena, and cut timber and made some 
staves, on the present site of the city ; but the most of their 
cutting was done near the great bend in the river, called the 
"Os Bow," This was the second house built by white men on 
the present site of Alpena, and Mrs. Jay and her daughter 
Emma were, in all probability, the first white women that had 
ever visited the place ; they certainly were the first to live here. 
In September, 1844, Jonathan Burtch and Anson Eldred 
purchased two pieces of land at the mouth of Devil river, it be- 
ing the first lands purchased of the United States in Aipena 
county, and the patents were issued in 1848, lu the fall and 
winter of the same year — 1844 — they erected a water-mill on 
Devil river, with two upright sash saws, and driven by two old 
fashioned "flutter wheels," and cut with both saws, when run 
twenty-four hours, the large sum of eight thousand feet of lum- 
ber. This was the first sawmill erected in Alpena county. At 
this time mulley saws were more generally used, and were re- 
ceiving many improvements; but large circular saws, for cut- 

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ting lumber, were yet iu the creation of genius. Tbe mil! that 
cut two million feet o£ lumber was Al on the list, aud those 
were "few and far between." Lumbermen did not then buy 
large ti^acts of timber lands, to lumber on, for they eould cut 
all they wanted on Government lands, without being called 
"timber thieves," or asked for pay for the timber. This state 
of things continued until 1S50, when Uncle Sam came down 
upon the lumbermen, like an avalanche, and threatened destruc- 
tion to tbem all. But a compromise was had, by which the 
lumbermen were to pay the costs made by the Government, and 
a promise "to do so no more." In 1845, Mr. Burtch located 
forty acres more at Devil river, and Mr. Eldred located two 
fractions on Thunder Bay river. 

The writer sold his winter's catch of furs, in Detroit, for two 
hundred eighty dollars in silver, by stipulation, and two hun- 
dred eighty dollars in paper money. Furs being sold in for- 
eign countries, were about the only product that would com- 
mand the specie at this time. The wnter then purchased a 
small stock of goods of B. G. Stimsou, Theodore H. Eaton and 
Moore & Foot, of Detroit, Michigan, and took them to Thun- 
der Bay Island, where he built the first store in Alpena county. 
Thunder Bay Island had now grown to a large fishing station, 
numbering thirty-one fishing boats and one hundred and sixty 
persons. Their cafch of fish in 184G, was a little over twelve 
thousand barrels. The people were mostly from Ohio and the 
Saginaws. In the summer of 1847, the writer purchased the 
Devil Kiver mill property of Jonathan Burtch, and moved there 
late in the fall of the same year. The place was called by the 
Indians, "Shing-gaw-ba-waw-sin-eke-go-ba-wat." Shin-gaw- 
ba was, as the Indians believe, the name of a Divine Chief, who 
lived a long time ago. He told his people that, after his death, 
his spirit would come back to where these stones were placed, 
for the presents his people might deposit near them. The In- 
dians do verily believe that his spirit does come back to these 

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stones, to receive the spirit o£ the things they present to him 
near these stones. This belief has the coloring of Spiritualism. 
Waw. sin-eke, signifies Image Stones. Go-ba-wat, signifies 
to put down more things than one. When the writer first vis- 
ited Devil river, in 1839, he saw, near the mouth of the river, 
two large stones standing together. One was a gneiss rock, 
with bauds of quartz, and having the appearance of being worn 
into its present shape by the action of the water. It weighed 
about three hundred pounds. The other stone was about four 
feet long, and in shape like the trunk of a man's body, minus 
head, legs and arms. It had very much the appearance of be- 
ing moulded from lake sand, and concreted with some substance 
having the appearance of bark. It was hard on the outside, but 
soft and easily crumbled where excluded from the atmosphere. 
At this time, near and around the stones, were large quantities 
of pipes, tobacco, beads, ear jewels, silver broaches, bell-but- 
tons and other kinds of trinkets. When the township was or- 
ganized, the writer named it "Waw-sin-eke," but, like many 
other Indian names, it was misspelled Os-sin-eke, the whole 
Indian name of the place being too long to retain. A fisher- 
man came to Devil river while the writer was absent, and, want- 
ing some anchor stones for his nets, seized the Shin-gaw-ba 
stones and carried them to the bay, thus depriving the place of 
valuable relics and Shin-gaw-ba of his presents. These stones 
are found through all the country of the Chippewas. The In- 
dians say, that a long time ago, some Iroquois captured two 
Chippewas, near Devil river, and pnt them and their image 
stones in a canoe, and started across the bay. When they 
reached near the middle of the bay, they threw the stones into 
the water, when, suddenly the water boiled and spouted up, and 
capsized the canoe and drowned the Iroquois, while the Chip- 
pewa prisoners succeeded in saving their lives, retaining the 
canoe and reaching the place from whence they stai^ted. When 
they went upon the land, they found, to their surprise, the 


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stones had preceded them, and were stauding in their places, 
as they did before they were moved. Whether their story is 
true or false, the stones failed to capsize the fisherman when he 
threw them into the bay, or came out of the water siuce. The 
river was called "Reviere Au Diable," by the early mail car- 
riers, who spoke the French language, and who sometimes in 
the fall and spring found much difflcnity in traveling the large 
marsh between the river and the south point of Thunder Bay. 
So the river was named after his Satanic Majesty, not because 
it was a bad river, but because it kept bad company. 


Ill 1849 and 1850, Robert Dunlap and E. Baily, of Chicago, 
Illinois, purchased of the United States, the lands round the 
mouth of Thunder Bay river. In 1855, they sold these lands 
to John Oldfield, James K. Loekwood, John S. Minor and 
George N. Fletcher, for thirty dollars per acre; Oldfield own- 
ing a quarter interest, Lockwood and Minor a quarter interest, 
and Fletcher owning a half interest. 

The following letter, handed the writer by G. N. Fletcher, 
Esq., indicates the first visit of the proprietors to Alpena, prior 
to making the "Baily purchase": 

Port Huron, Aug. 4tb, 1855. 

G. N. Fletcher, Esq., 

St. Clair. 
Dear Sir: 

I propose to take my vessel, the John Minor, and in com- 
pany with my partner and other parties interested at Thunder 
Bay river, to make an exploring expedition to that place. Am- 
ple time will be given to make all necessary observations at 
that place, at as moderate expense and with as much comfort 
as circumstances will permit. Your company, together with 

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any persons you would like to take with you, will be acceptable. 
Please to advise me, by note, if you will or will not go, so that 
I may give you notice of our sailing, which we propose to make 
about the 1st Sept. 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed,) J. K. LOCK WOOD. 

David D. Oliver purchased some lands at Devil river, in 
1851, and in August of the same year, W. L. P. Little, of East 
Saginaw, purchased a fraction or two, on the bay shore, which 
would be in (he northeast fractional quart^er of section 27, in 
town 31 north, of range 8 east, in his own name, as security 
for the purchase money; but the purchase was made for Walter 
Scott, for a fishery. Scott moved his family to Thunder Bay 
river in the fall of the same year and tried the fishing, and 
found it a failure, on these lands. Scott then, consideiing the 
lands of no value, failed to pay for them, and Little, as be 
thought, was left with a piece of poor property on his hands. 
Scott traded with the Indians and looked up pine lands for 
Lewis & Graves, John Trowbridge & Bros., and some otlierg, 
until September, 1856, when Messrs. Lockwood & Fletcher & 
Co,, desirous of getting him away with his whiskey, before 
their men should come up to work, bought all his buildings, 
and some other things, for the sum of one hundred and fifty 
dollars. Scott left Alpena in the spring of 1857. 

Eai-ly in 1857, Mr. Little offered his property at Thunder 
Bay river, to the wriftT, for five hundred dollars, half down, 
and the balance in a j'oar. Although the writer was consider- 
ed by some of his contemporaries as extravagant and "luna" in 
regard to the value of property in Alpena county, and its future 
growth, yet he was not controlled by the moon, or any other 
influences, enough to accept this LiHle property, which now 
comprises a large portion of the best residences in the city. 

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The writer thinks it will now be coucyded by those who have 
noted the rapid developement and growth of the city and coun- 
ty, that his ideas did not reach the reality by as much as they 
thought him above it. Subsequently Mr. Little came up ia 
the price of his property at Alpena, to fifteen hundred dollars, 
and sold it to S. E. Hitchcock, who now resides upon a portion 
of it. He subsequently made it an addition to the village, now 
city, of Alpena. The Union School house stands on a portion 
of this property. 

In 1850, Congress passed an act, granting all the swamp 
lands to the several States, but the United States Land Offices 
continued to sell the lands as before the grant was made, until 
the latter part of 1859. In 1852, Congress passed an act, 
granting seven hundred and fifty thousand acres of land for 
the purpose of constructing a ship canal around the falls of the 
Sault Ste. Marie, and thereby connecting the commerce of the 
lower lakes with that of Lake Superior. A company was duly 
organized to prosecute the work, known and styled the "Sault 
Ste. Marie Ship Canal Co.," and in 1853, commenced selecting 
their lands. Parties of "land lookers" were -sent out by the 
company, into all parts of the State, and finding large bodies 
of good pine in Alpena county and vicinity, it led other parties, 
desirous of purchasing pine lands, to look in the same direc- 
tion. In 1853, George N. Fletcher employed Daniel Carter, 
Esq,, to look up and locate some pine lands on the waters of 
Thunder Bay river. Mr. Fletcher purchased the lands in the 
name of Thomas Campbell, of Boston, Mass., about eight thou- 
sand acres, up to 1857, in which he owned an interest, and hft 
has been a purchaser and holder of pine lands in Alpena county 
ever since. John Trowbridge & Bros, commenced locating 
pine lands in ISS-t or '55, and in two or three years had pur- 
chased about thirty thousand acres. Frank H. Page and David 
D. Oliver located and purchased about two thousand acres. G. 
S. Lester purchased, near Turtle Lake, about nine hundred 

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acres. Lewiy & Graves, of Detroit, purchased about three hun- 
dred acres ; and Elisha Taylor, of Detroit, purchased about five 
hundred acres, near the rapids; and Capt. J. J. Maiden pur- 
chased a lot in section 27, town 31 north, o£ range 8 east. This 
comprises most, if not all, the land holders and lands purchas- 
ed in the county, prior to its organization, iu 1857. 




Alpena county is bouuded on the north by Preeque Isle 
county, east by Thunder Bay, south by Alcona county, and on 
the west by Montmorency coauty, which, at present — 1876 — is 
attached to Alpeua coimty for judicial purposes. It includes 
townships 29, 30, 31 and 32 north, of ranges 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 
east, tailing in all of Thunder Bay and the islands, tit has an 
area of about one thousand four hundred and forty square miles. 
It contains approximately three hundred ninety-one thousand six 
hundred eighty acres of land. The surface descends a little to the 
south and east, and is from gently rolling to rolling. The tim- 
ber is of great variety, and is no indication of the soil on which 
it grows. Sometimes a rich argiilo- calcareous loam is covered 
with white and black birch, aspen, balsam, tamarack, cedar and 
a few small sugar, hemlock, and norway and white pine. The 
principal timber is pine, hemlock, sugar, beech, cedar, balsam, 
white and black birch, black ash, elm lynn, poplar, spruce, etc. 
The soil is mostly a rich loam, reposing on limestone rock, and 
containing all the elements necessary to make the agricultural 
capabilities of Alpena county compare favorably with any coun- 
ty in the State. A few spots of arenaceous sol! is met with, 
but it contains large quantities of carbonate of lime and mag- 
nesia. It also contains considerable ammonia, and it only re- 
quires a little addition of vegetable matter, and a sprinkling of 
salt, to make it very productive, so long as the ground does 
not suffer for want of rain. The salt produces chemical action 
in the soil, and dissolves the silica. On this kind of land, the 
seed should be put in with a drill or hoe, so that it will be cov- 
ered the proper depth, and the land prepared by a roller, so 

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as to enable the soil to hold the moisturp, and in no case should 
the land be raised above a level. 

Thunder Bay river enters Thunder Bay on the southwest 
quarter of section 23, in township 31 north, of range 8 east, 
and ia the principal stream in the county. The river, with its 
branches and their tributaries, take their rise in, or run through, 
the counties of Montmorency, Oscoda, Alcona, Presque Isle 
and A5pena, and drains and affords log-running facilities for 
thirty-nine tt>wnahipa. The river is 197 feet T,-ide where it di- 
vides the city, on First street, but is much wider between this 
point and the 'mill dam. With nine feet of water on the bar, 
and fourteen inside, it ia navigable only three-fourths of a mile. 
The river, from its mouth to the Broadwell rapids, by its ser- 
pentine course, is about live miles ; and the river rises thirteen 
feet. It is from four to six rods wide. Near the section line 
between 15 and 22, the river passes over a limestone ledge, 
now covered by water of the dam. nine feet four inches, which 
the writer believes to be identical with the limestone found at 
Sunken Lake, From the foot of the rapids to Trowbridge's 
dam is 231 chains, by the river, and the fal! of the water fi-oni 
the summit level of the Trowbridge pond to the foot of the 
rapids is sixty-five feet; and the river is from eight to twenty 
rods wide. At the time the writer made the survey, he noticed 
at one place an exceptional dip in the rock, a short distance 
above the Broadwell pond, where the dip of the rock was east, 
but was only three and one-half feet in forty roda. The Trow- 
bridge dam slacks the water up the river a short distance above 
the North Branch, and the perpendicular fall of water from this 
point to the bay is seventy-eight feet. From the level of the 
Trowbridge pond to the head of Long Rapids, the rise can not 
be less than seventy-eight feet more. The river is rapid above 
this place, and runs over limestone ledges, in town 31 north, of 
range 4 east, town 30 north, of range 3 east, and has a rise of 
not less than fifty feet more, making a total fall of water from 

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range one to Thunder Bay, of two hundred and sixty ieet. All 
the tributaries are rapid streams, showing no lack of drainage 
for the land. 

Devil river is a small stream, taking its rise iu a small lake 
near Thunder Bay river, and runs south through Mud Lake, 
and empties into Thunder Bay, twelve miles south of Alpena, 
It has a log-running capacity for about six miles. 

Long Lake is a beautiful sheet of inland water, being in Al- 
pena and Presque Isle counties. It is eight miles long and 
from one to one and a half miles wide, surrounded by good 
farming lands, densely covered with hardwood. The waters 
are well stocked with fish, the principal being pike, bass and 
sunfish. The outlet of Long Lake, called by the writer "Crys- 
tal river," from the clear, crystal appearance of the water, is a 
large stream in the spring, and dwindles to a small brook in 
the summer. It runs nearly east from the outlet to Lake Hu- 
ron, and on its way passes through two small lakes, mostly sur- 
rounded by high bluffs of limestone. In one of these lakes is 
a subterranean passage for the water, of sufScient size to pass 
nearly the entire stream during the lowest stages of water in 
the summer. 

The city of Alpena is located at the mouth of Thunder Bay 
river, which enters Thunder Bay near its head, in forty-fifth 
degree of north latitude, and eighty-three degrees and fifty min- 
utes west longitude, in sections 22, 23 and 27, in town 31 north, 
of range 8 east, and is the county seat of Alpena county. It 
is, by section line, twenty miles west and one hundred and 
ninety-two miles north of Detroit, and twenty miles east and 
ninety-six miles north of Bay City. It ia north from Ossineke 
twelve miles, and west from Thunder Bay Island twelve 
miles, and south from Presque Isle harbor about eighteen 
miles. At the time the writer first visited the place now occu- 
pied by the city of Alpeua, there was, on the east side of the 
river near the foot of Dock street, a narrow ridge of land ex- 

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tending east, along the bay shore, for about eighty rods. Near 
the rivei', and extending to the bay, was a beautiful oak grove, 
containing about four acres, where the Indians camped, feasted, * 
drank their "fire soup," sang their war songs, danced their war, 
religious and festive dances, held their councils, and buried 
their dead and feasted their spirits. North of this, and near 
the river, was a narrow ridge, crossed by a small stream, on its 
way to Thunder Bay river, and covered with a thicket of white 
birch, aspen, cedar, and a sprinkling of norway and white pine, 
and east of this was a dense cedar and tamarack swamp. This 
ridge widened as it extended north, until it reached the vicinity 
of Walnut street, where it was about forty rods wide, and cov- 
ered with a belt of large timber, of hemlock and pine. It 
thence extended north, into open norway pine plains. On this 
lidge was a deep-worn Indian trail, from the mouth of the river 
to the then rapids, near the section line between sections 15 
and 22, in town 31 north, of range 8 east, and now covered by 
the mill pond, where the Indians fished for sturgeon, pike, 
pickerel and suckers, which were in abundance, and sometimes 
whitefish. From this point were two trails, one extending 
north, through section 16, to Long Lake, and the other extend- 
ing up the river. On the west side of the river, also, was a 
small ridge. A line, commencing near the foot of Second 
street, and thence running to the corner of Chisholm street and 
Washington avenue, and from tJienee reaching the bay a little 
below Messrs. Campbell & Potter's dock, would separate the 
ridge from the swamp. All of that portion east and south of 
this line, and reaching to the bay, was a sandy ridge, covered 
with small pine, white birch and yellow oak; and all west of 
this line, for a mile or more, was a dense tamarack and cedar 
swamp, filled with water, and well stocked with batrachians, 
whose loud prate gave token of .approaching spring. By the 
united efforts of thousands, the timber has been removed, the 
swamp drained of its water, and the croakers, like the smoke 

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of the Indian's wig-wam, are growing leas every year, and aooti 
will be known as only a eomething o£ the past. This swamp, 
BO abhorrent a few years ago, has become valuable property, on 
which, in 1876, is standing beautiful residences, the abode of 
intelligence, peace and plenty. From Second street, north a 
few rods, was a small brook, winding its way to the river, and 
bounded by a cedar swamp about fifteen rods widp. North of 
this swamp was a piece of high laud, containing about thirty 
acres, which was well timbered with white pine and hemlock. 
This ridge narrowed to a strip near the river, and esteuding 
north to the norway and spruce pine plains. On this ridge, 
^^ also, was a deep and well marked Indian trail, which had been 
tramped by moccasined feet for many centuries. It led to the 
rapids, before mentioned, and thence to the big bend of the 
river, near Messrs. Campbell & Potter's sawmill, where it be- 
came two, one leading up the river, and the other following the 
sandy ridge to Shin-gaw-ba-waw-sin-eke-go-ba-wot — now Ossi- 
V neke. These Indian trails were of much importance to the 
early surveyors, land-lookers and settlers, being the principal 
means of communication by land between various parts of the 
country. These were called "paths" by the first explorers and 
settlers, and this is the reason for finding a "Pathmaeter" in 
the list of the first officers of the township of Fremont. 

Geologists have represented the geological formation of the 
Lower Peninsula of Michigan, as a slightly depressed basin, 
having its center in or near Jackson and Ingham counties. As 
you travel any direction from this centra) point, you pass over 
the outcropping edge of various lithological strata, in a de- 
scending series, until you reach the granite formation; hence. 
Prof. N. H. WinchelJ, in his notes on the geology of the Thun- 
der Bay region, published in the Pioneer, in 1870, says: "As 
one goes toward the north from Saginaw Bay, along the shore 

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of Lake Huron, he passes over the outcroppiug edges of rocks 
lower and lower in the geological series, until he reaches Lake 
Superior. The sRine is known of the Michigan side of Lake 
Michigan, noi-thward from Grand Rapids." The writer be- 
lieves this to be true, only in part, and as confined to the shores 
of the lakes, but not trne in regard to the interior of the State. 
His travels and explorations in nearly all parts of the State, 
have led him to the conclusion that the interior of the northern 
portion of the Southern Peninsula has not been sufficiently ex- 
plored by competent geologists, as to warrant them in coming 
to any definite conclusion concerning the geological structure 
of this region. A little observation will teach us that all rivers, 
wherever they run over stratified rocks, do not run with the 
dip, but over the outcropping edges. Whenever they run with 
the dip, they seldom show the rocks; tLe streams are mostly 
sluggish, and the rocks generally covered with alluvial deposit. 
This being the case, the sources of rivers indicate the highest 
portion of country; and a little study of their courses and their 
descent, and tlie rocks over which they run, will give ue an ap- 
proximate idea of the geological structure ot the distiict of 
country through which they run. In referring to the rivers of 
the Lower Peninsula, we find th'e St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, and 
Grand rivers rising in the interior of the southern part of the 
Southern Peninsula, and carrying the summit level east of the 
center of the State, and running west and northwest with a 
moderate descent, over the outcropping edges of rocks, dipping 
slightly toward the center, empty their waters into Lake Mich- 
igan. The Shiawassee river, rising in the same vicinity, runs 
north and mingles with the waters of Saginaw river, wbilb the 
Clinton, Huron and Kaisiu rivers take their rise on the same 
summit level, and pour their waters into St. Clair Lake and 
Detroit river. After admitting that these rivers run over the 
outcropping edges of rocks dipping slightly towai-d the center 
of this geological basin, then allow the writer to invite the 

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reader to go with him iuto Roscommon, Crawford and Otsego 
counties, where we will reach another summit level, which is 
estimated to be one thousand feet above the level of the lakes. 
Here the Muskegon and Manistee, two large rivers, take their 
rise, and after running south and southwest, over ledges of 
rock dipping slightly to the northeast, discharge their waters 
into Lake Michigan. The Cheboygan, Pigeon and Black rivers 
rise in Otsego county, run north over ledges of limestone, dip- 
ping south, and lose themselves in the lakes of the Cheboygan 
river. The Thunder Bay and Au Sable rivers take their heads 
in small lakes in Otsego and Crawford counties, run east, with 
a rapid descent, over outcropping rocks, which dip to the west 
and northwest — with some local exceptional dip to the east, 
near Thunder Bay — pour their waters into Lake Huron. The 
Tittabawassee river, commencing in, and running near Roscom- 
mon county, runs south, and loses itself in Saginaw river. The 
Boardman, Elk and Pine rivers, take their sources on or near 
the summit level, and run west, into Grand Traverse Bay and 
Lake Michigan. Here we have another well defined geological 
basin, which, to practical geologists, is very little known, and 
especially that portion comprising the counties of Alpena and 
Montmorency. In 1859 and 1860, Prof. A. Winchell made 
some geological explorations in Alpena county and its vicinity, 
and subsequently it was visited by Prof. N. H. Winchell, but 
neither of them carried their explorations far enough to deter- 
mine, in the faintest degree, the geological character of Alpena 
county; and they are not certain in regard to the super-position 
of the rocks, or the groups to which they belong. But the 
most important fact, entirely overlooked by geologists, in regard 
the geological formation of the Lower Peninsula, is the depres- 
sion between those two basins. A line drawn from the mouth 
of Saginaw river to the mouth of the Muskegon river, passes 
nearly in the bottom of a synclinal valley between the two 
places. The Tittabawassee river running south from the north- 

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em basin, and the Shiawassee river running north from the 
eoutheru basin; these rivers, with their branches, and other 
streams, establish the important fact that there is a depression 
running entirely across the Southern Peninsula, near its center, 
and dividing it into two parts or basins. This being a fact, we 
find the gypsum beds at Alabaster, and coal at Kifle river, to 
belong to the northern basin. Prof. N. H. Winchell says, in 
one of his notes to the Alpena County Pioneer, published in 
1870: "There are various interesting problems, yet unsolved, 
connected with the geology of the Thunder Bay region. The 
foregoing 'notes' have merely indicated the outlines of its 
prominent features. These indications even, are too often bas- 
ed on conjecture, rather than actual observation." Although 
the explorations now made are indefinite and of no available 
benefit to the county, yet they afford important suggestions, and 
will assist materially in any further survey; and, therefore, the 
writer has copied from the reports, all that he deemed of any 
probable value. In the groupings of the rocks in this region 
of the State, all the reports are vague and ambiguous, if uot 

Prof. A. Winchell, in his report for 1850 and 1860, says: 
'■The elevated limestone region, constituting the northern por- 
tion of the Peninsula, consists of the higher members of the 
Upper Helderburg Group, which graduallj' subsides toward the 
south, and in the southern part of Cheboygan county, as nearly 
as can be judged, sinks beneath the shaly limestones of the 
Hamilton Group." In the "Atlas of the State of Michigan," 
Winchell calls these limestones the "Little Traverse Group," 
and says: "This is composed chietly of the Hamilton Group 
[.iropt;r, of the New York geologists; but as the lower limits of 
the Hamilton have uot yet been clearly fixed upon in the State, 
we apply the above terms to a series of limestones outcropping 
in the vicinity of Little Travei-se Bay and Thunder Bay, and 
constituting physically a single mass. They have been the sub- 

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ject of considerabie study. In 1860, we made an official sur- 
vey of the Little Traverse strata; in 1866, a special survey and 
report, and in 1869, the ground was again officially examined, 
and as the result of all our studies, we submit the following 
generalized airangement : 

"IV. Chert Beds. » 

"III. Itlufl vesluular luagoeslan llmtiBtano overluld by charauttr- 
iBtlc crinotdal beds. 

"II. Bituminous aliftlea and limi'stoaes, eompoeed of (b) Ao«rvu- 
larift beds above, and (a) Bryozoa bads below. 

"I. Pale-bluff mas&lvH Hmeetoiios. compilsiiig (b) Cenoslroma 
beds above, and FIsli beds bulow." 

The total thicfeness was set down provisionally at 141 feet, 
which is probably too low. This grouping will apparently hold 
good over extensive region. On the Geological Map of Michi- 
gan, this group occupies the shore north from Little Traverse 
Bay to Thunder Bay, and round the bay as far as Ossiueke. 
Prof. N. H. Winchell says: "The Hamilton limestones and 
shales, and the Huron shales, furnish the geological basis of 
the Thunder Bay region"; but he is somewhat puzzled in re- 
gard to the arrangement and super-position of the various 
strata, as will appear by his remarks, before quoted, and by the 
following to the Pioneer: "It has been remarked that the 
natural dip of the strata is toward the center of the State, in all 
piaces. This, however, is so slight as to be almost impercepti- 
ble to the eye; and hence, the natural beds generally appear 
horizontal, unless local causes have produced exceptional dip." 
Now, it has been found that rocks which underlie the Thunder 
Bay district are much affected by an exceptional dip. Along 
the lake shore, and in the limits of Thunder Bay, the excep- 
tional dip eastward is always found. This is true as far north 
as Nine Mile Point, but it is not noticeable within Thunder 
Bay, and as far iuland as Bvoadwell's mill, dip toward the bay. 
This downthrow of the rocks accounts for the occurrence of 
higher members in the Hamilton at the mouth of Thunder Bay 

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river than at the "Big Kapids," thirty miles west. Prof. A. 
Wiuchell, in his report of 1859-"60, page 69, says: "Ou the 
east side of Thunder Bay Island, the rocks of the Helderberg 
group are seen overlain by a black bituminous limestone, 
abounding in Atrypartdlvularig, and numerous other Brachio- 
pods allied to the types of this group, (Hamilton). The local- 
ity furnishes, also, two or three B[>eci6s of trilobites, (a) Favo- 
sites. a large coral allied to Acervularia, and some small fish 
remains. The same beds are again seen at Carter's quarry, 
two or three miles above the mouth of Thunder Bay river, and 
here it contains the game fossils. It is seen again on the south 
shore of Little Traverse Bay, replete with Brachiopods and 
Bryozoa, and is here eighteen feet thick. The exact order of 
super-position of the rocks coustitutiug the Hamilton group, 
has nowhere been observed. The bluffs at Partridge Point, in 
Thunder Bay, are believed to come in next above the bitumin- 
ous limestones of the localities just cited. The rock here is, at 
bottom, a bluish, highly argillaceous limestone, with shaly in- 
terl ami nations, the whole wonderfully stocked with the remains 
of Bryozoa, and not a few eucrinital stans. Above these beds, 
which are but five feet thick, occurs a mass of blue shale, six 
feet thick; still higher is a massive limestone, below filled with 
Bryozoa, encrinites and Brachiopods; above, little fossil if erous, 
the whole with in terlami nations of clay. At the upper rapids 
of Thunder Bay river, still a different but entirely detached 
section was observed, and it is yet impossible to collocate it with 
the others. At the upper rapids — northeast quarter of south- 
west quarter of section 7, town 31 north, of range 8 east — on 
the south side of the river, limestone is seen in a bluff fifteen 
feet high, dipping east-southeast about five degrees. The 
whole section exposed is twenty-five feet, made up as follows, 
irom above: 

8. Limestone, bluish, flaggy — S feet. 

7. Limestone, dark gray, highly crystaline, thick bedded, 
with Favosiies — 9 feet. 

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6. Limestone, dark bluish, very fine grained, harj, compact 
and heavy, with a few reddish streaks and spots, and some en- 
erinital stans and shells, and a few crystals of spar interspersed 
with occasional seams of the same, in the form of .dog-tooth 
spar. Would make an excellent building stone, and probably 
■ would receive a fine polish^ — d feet. 

5. Limestone, gray, crystaline, thick be<lded, seen in bottom 
of river. This rock resembles fragments seen at the highest 
level above the lower rapids — 2 feet. 

4. An interval of no exposure, H«lf a mile higher up the 
stream, the section ie continued, as follows: 

3. Limestones, dark, bluish gray, fine grained, compact in 
layers two to four inches thick ; resembles the rock at the lower 

2. Clay indurated, regularly stratified, rather dark — 3^ feet. 

1. Calcarious shale, with fossils, forming the bed of the 
river. The dip at this place is abnormal, and evidently local. 
The true geological position of the rock must be determined by 
future investigation. The rocks of the Hamilton group are 
traced from the south shore of Little Travei'se Bay, to near the 
outlet of Grand Traverse Bay. In speaking of the Huron 
group he says: "At Sulphur Island, in Thunder Bay, not 
more than a mile east -south east from Partridge Point, is found 
a black bituminous slate, which is believed to overlie the fossili- 
ferous cliffs at the latter place. No undisturbed strata are to 
be seen on the island, which consists of a mass of fragments, 
rising a few feet above the water. These slates, or shale, burn 
with considerable freedom, and it is stated that combustion 
started from camp fires has, in several instances, continued 
spontaneously for many months, in one case sixteen months. 
The cinders resulting from these fires, are still very conspicu- 
ous. These shales furnish no fossils, except a few vegetable 
impressions, resembling Calamiies, and some yery indistinct 
impressions of shells. Pyriteous noctules and septaria are 

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quite common. At Sqi}aw Point, on the main land, south of 
the island, near the residence of the old Indian Chief Zwanno- 
Qiiaddo, tlie black slates are found in places, in a cliff ten feet 
high. The exposed surfaces are very much discolored by oxide 
of iron. On the opposite side of the State, the black shales are 
seen at the southeast extremity of Mucqua Lake, in Emmet 
county; on the north side of Pine Lake, section 3, town 33 
north, of range 7 west; near the outlet of Grand Traverse Bay, 
section 3, town 32 north, of range 9 west, and a few miles south 
of there, and again near the head of Carp Lake, in Leelanau 
county. The greatest observed thickness in this part of the 
State, is twenty feet." 

From the foregoing statement, we draw the very probable 
conclusion, that thrbe distinct kinds of rock are found outcrop- 
ping on and near the shores of Thunder Bay; that the carbon- 
aceous limestones belong to the Helderberg or Little Traverse 
group; that the black bituminous limestoues belong to the 
Hamilton group, and the black slates, seen at Squaw Point, be- 
long to tlie Huron group. That an exceptional dip of the rocks 
exists in many places in the vicinity of Thunder Bay, and that 
they are much disturbed and displaced. The limestones term- 
ed the "Little Traverse Group," compose the surface rock on 
and near the lake shore, from Little Traverse Bay, northward 
to Thunder Bay. In Cheboygan county, they reach as far 
south as the small lakes of Cheboygan river. In Presque Isle 
county, they probably reach as far west as the western extrem- 
ity of Long Lake; and they covtr most of that portion of Al- 
pena county north of Thunder Bay. These limestones lie 
nearly horizontal, as observed along the shore of Lake Huron, 
and measured from the level of the lake. The high bluffs on 
the lake, at Crawford's Quarry, are about sixty feet high, and 
the one opposite Middle Island is of about the same height. 
The rock from here south, gradually subsides, until it r 
Little Thunder Bay, where it forms an escarpment abutting 

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the bay, about thirty feet perpendicular. They probably dip 
slightly toward the center of the northern basin, with some 
local exceptional dip in the vicinity of Thunder Bay ; but the 
western limits of their disappearance, under higher formations, 
have not been determined. These limestones are fine grained, 
highly crystallized and handsomely clouded, by the unequal 
distribution of the fossils and bituminous matter they contain. 
They are eueceptible of a high polish, and when the large 
corals— especially the Favose and Cyathophylloids, which are 
abundant — are cut and polished, they present a very beautiful 
and agate-like appearance. Some years since a quarry was 
opened near Adams' Point, by Mr. Crawford, and is now known 
as Crawford's Quarry; and subsequently another quarry was 
opened nearly opposite Middle Island, by Mr. Litehenberg, and 
large hopes were entertained at the time, that samples would 
be found large enough to place the Lake Huron marbles with 
the most esteemed varieties ; but no such samples have yet been 
found, and it is extremely doubtful whether they ever will be, 
as the rock is very much shattered. If the black bituminous 
limestones spoken of, belong to the Hamilton group, then this 
group of rocks in the Thunder Bay region is inconsiderable, 
not being in any known place more than six feet in thickness; 
and the same may be said of what is known of the Huron slates 
noticed at Squaw Point, whose aggregate thickness would prob- 
ably exceed one hundred and twenty-five feet. Townships 31, 
32 and 33 noith, of ranges 6, 7 and 8 east, are remai'kable for 
the abnormal and broken condition of the rocks. Ledges with 
large cracks and cavernous fissures, sink-holes or basins, in 
many of which streams of considerable size disappear, and ex- 
ceptional dip in the rocks in various directions. A ledge of 
limestone, fifty feet high, occurs in the south part of section 35, 
in town 33 north, of range 7 east, faced on the north by a small 
lake, where can be seen large cracks and cavernous partings 
partly filled with detritus. These openings in the rocks run 

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with the strike, sometimea for one-fourth of a mile. The dip 
couid not be well aaeertained. North of the partings, the rocks 
were much broken up, but south of the partings they dip in 
some places, slightly to the southwest. The strike bears south- 
east for about half a mile, in a well defined cliff, and then be- 
comes very much broken and irregular, and which is very dis- 
tinctly marked on the section line between sections 1 and 2, in 
town 32 north, oi range 7 east. This ledge is traced in a north- 
west direction, into the northeast quarter of section 33, where 
it is about fifty feet high, and faced on the northeast by a long 
but narrow lake, apparently very deep. Here, again, are large 
partings in the rocks, and cavernous chambers, similar to the 
former, but the rocks are more broken and irregular. Here 
the dip appeared to the west, and the strike bending round the 
west side of the lake, had a trend southeast and north twenty 
degrees west. In the northwest quarter of section 16, town 32 
north, of range 7 east, occurs a similar ledge, about twenty feet 
high, and also faced on the northeast by a small lake. Here 
are partings similar to those first mentioned. In the northwest 
quarter of section 14. in town 32 north, of range 7 east, near 
the section line, is a very singular basin. It is nearly round, 
two hundred feet or more in diameter, and about seventy feet 
deep. It was tunnel-shaped for about forty feet, and then the 
rocks became perpendicular; reposing at the bottom in what 
appeared like a cavern, was a small lake of nice, clear water. 
The writer did not examine the rocks, nor did he ascertain 
whether the water in the lake was in motion, or in repose. In 
the southwest quarter of section 5, in the same town and range, 
is a stream eight feet wide, which approaches from the north- 
west, a cliff of limestone, about twenty feet high, and at the 
foot of this cliff is an irregular cavernous looking basin, about 
thirty feet deep, into which the stream descends and disappears 
at the bottom. But the most remarkable basin in this vicinity 
is the one known as "Sunken Lake," on the west side of section 

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32, in town 33 north, of range 6 east. This is a wonderful 
and interesting locality, and afFovds a key, when placed in skill- 
ful hands, to unlock many, if not all, the geological mysteries 
attached to the Thunder Bay region. When the writer visited 
this beautiful and interesting spot, in 1866, he was exploring 
for pine timber, and was not prepared, and did not examine 
anything critically or geologically. All of his measurements 
and descriptions are only approximate, and are given to assist 
those who hereafter may desire to examine the several localities, 
from curiosity or for scientific purposes. A few rods west of 
Sunken Lake, at this time, was a sink-hole of recent formation. 
It was oval in form at the top, its major axis being about one 
hundred feet OTer, was perpendicular on its west side, and 
about seventy feet deep, with water at the bottom. Commenc- 
ing at the bottom and reaching np the side of the baein for 
thirty feet, was a coarse grained, buff colored, smooth, compact, 
argillaceous sandstone, and appeared to be the side of a fault in 
the sand rock. Reposing upon this was about three feet of black 
slates, similar to those met with at Squaw Point; and resting 
upon these slates, and reaching to the snrface, is a laminated 
limestone, from thirty to forty feet thick, well and variously 
stocked with fossils. Near the west side of this "hoh in the 
ground," the limestones commence to dip to the east, and 
plunge over the edge of the sandstone, at an angle of about 
sixty degrees, to the bottom of Sunken Lake, which is not less 
on the west side than seventy-five feet deep. The rock con- 
tinues under the lake as far as it could be traced. Here is a 
very singnlar and extraordinary exceptional dip to the east; but 
what is still more singular, is, that the limestones are not 
cracked or broken, but lie over the precipice made by the fault- 
ed underlying rock, as though it had flowed over them in a 
soft state, and hardened on its passage, leaving a hollow space 
between them and the margin of the rock, forming a channel 
of a subterranean river. The strike of these rocks was traced 

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ocly about forty rods, bending to ibe east on the bottom sides 
of the lake, and forming the west half of Sunken Lake. Be- 
tween this downthrow and the more northern limestone is a 
valley filled with drift, composed of very coarse gravel, sand, 
clay, etc., with a few large boulders. The North Branch of 
Thunder Bay river, which is thirty feet wide near Sunken Lake, 
and capable of floating saw-logs for twenty or more miles above 
the lake, in making its channel to Thunder Bay river, passes 
over a portion of this drift bed; and that portion of the drift 
between the channel of the river and the drift flanking the west 
side of the lake, being very porous, filled with water from the 
river, and was pressed with great force throagh the small 
cracks and seams in the limestones. In time these holes 
through the rocks were made large enough to pass sand and 
small gravel, and then commenced the hollowing out of the 
lake. The limestones becoming denuded, were split and crum- 
bled by the frosts of winter, presented additional mouths to in- 
vite water from the river, until it quit its old bed, turned at 
right angles with its old channel, cut a new one for half a mile 
to the lake, and after making a few gyrations, sank beneath the 
rocks, to pass in subterranean darkness to the waters of Little 
Thunder Bay, where it is indefinitely ascertained that it emerges. 
The apertures in the rocks are not yet large enough to admit 
the whole river in time of a freshet, and the surplus water re- 
turns to its old channel, affording the lumbermen a small 
chance to run their logs past this difficult place. This subter- 
ranean stream, in all probability, follows the strike of the 
faulted sandstone, which we think bears about east-southeast 
from the lake. At the same time the writer examined Sunken 
Lake, he discovered a very interesting sink-hole, or basin, 
somewhere about southeast from the lake, and thinks it was 
between sections 15 and 16, in town' 31 north, of range 6 east. 
It was situated in the midst of a heavy growth of sugar, beech 
and hemlock timber. The hole was nearly round, and about 

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two hundred feet in diameter. The alluvium and drift was 
about fifty feet deep, and the cavern Below was spacious enough 
to take this immense mass of matter and the Jarge forest trees, 
and hide tliem in the chambers below ; it had fallen entirely 
out of sight. In sinking the first well in Alpena, the litholog- 
ical structure was noted for 64| feet, and it is remarkable that 
after passing through the alluvium and drift for 30 feet, and 
through only two feet of limestone, a quartz rock was reached, 
18 feet thick, carrying copper, and perhaps gold. If the rec- 
ords be true, the chances for gold would be better than for salt 
from the Saginaw basin. Taking all these facts into consider- 
ation, we are drawn to the inevitable conclusion that the Sag- 
inaw salt group and the carboniferous limestones found in the 
lower basin, compose the nine hundred feet of rock piled up 
above the sandstones seen at Sunken Lake. That the Saginaw 
salt lies in a valley between the two basins, and extending from 
Saginaw Bay to Muskegon. That Alpena city and its imme- 
diate vicinity is on the outcropping edge of the northern geo- 
logical basin, and below the Saginaw salt group ; and that if 
salt is ever found here, it will be taken from the Onondaga salt 
gi'oup of rocks. And now that roads have been made into the 
interior of the county, affording good facilities for reaching 
every part of it, that a few hundred dollars would be well ex- 
pended by the county, in employing a competent geologist to 
make a proper survey of this most interesting portion of the 
Southern Peninsula, 

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At the time tlie public surveys were mHiie in Alpena, Presque 
Isle aud Cheboygan counties, all that part of the peninsula was 
known as the Thunder Bay region, and was attached to Mack- 
inac county, for judicial purposes. In 1854 or '55. the land 
district was divided, and a Land Office was established at the 
village of Duncan City, in Cheboygan countj'. Subsequently 
these land districts were sub-divided, with offices at Traverse 
City, East Saginaw, Ionia, and Detroit, Alpena county being 
iu the Detroit district. In 1840, boundaries were made, and 
names given to twenty-nine northern counties. One of these 
counties was named after an ancient chief of the Thunder Bay 
band of Indians — "An-a-ma-kee," or Thunder. The uarae was 
changed to Alpena, in 1843, but for what reason, is not known 
to the writer, but he thinks the name a phonetic rendering of 
the word "Aw-pe-ua," which means Partridge, in the Indian 
language. The point of land between Squaw Bay and Alpena 
is known by the Indians as "Aw-pe-na-sing," or Partridge 
Point, and the name of Alpena was probably taken from the 
name of this point, through the influence of the Hon. Henry 
Ashman, who was well acquainted with the Thunder Bay coast, 
spoke the Indian language, and was subsequently a member of 
the State Legislature, from Midland county. In seems to be a 
word of recent coinage, as the writer can find no place on the 
globe of the same name. The word should be spelled "Awpena," 
to mean Partridge, and if rendered into English, as it is now 
spelled, would be, "not quite a Partridge." 

In speaking of Squaw Bay, reminds the writ«r Of the origin 
of the name. Places sometimes receive their names from tri- 
fling circumstances. The writer named the bay "Squaw Bay," 

Hosted by GOO^^IC 


from the following incident: In the winter of 1850 or '51, Bob- 
ert McMulIen was traveling acroae the bay, and when about the 
middle of it, he discovered some one fishing through a hole in 
the ice; and on approaching near, he found it to be Na-o-tay- 
ke-zhick-co-quay, the daughter of the old Chief Mich-e-ke-wis, 
who was then camped on Partridge Point. The Indian maiden 
was fishing, with her head covered with a blanket, and when 
she heard approaching footsteps, she bouiMled to her feet, with 
a frightened look, and without waiting for any apology from 
Mc, she started for the point, with the fleetneas of the antelope. 
When McMullen told the writer of his adventure, he said to 
him: "We will call that bay 'Squaw Bay,' and since that time 
it has been known by that name. 

In 1853, Oheboygan county was organized, and Montmoren- 
cy, Preeque Isle, Alpena, Oscoda and Alcona counties were at- 
tached to Cheboygan county, for judicial and municipal pur- 
poses. In the spring of 1855, the first assessment of taxes was 
made in Alpena county. The assessor from Cheboygan came 
as far as Presque Isle, and returned, having assessed the whole 
territory, T,-ithout seeing any of it, as many assessors have done 
since, and are now doing in moat of the noi-thern counties. No 
tax was collected in Alpena county for this year. In 1856, 
the second assessment, and the first collection of taxes, was 
made by Cheboygan county, and which tax so collected, amount- 
ed to a little over five hundred dollars. 

After making the Bailey purchase, the proprietors deemed it 
advisable to have a county organization for the success and 
oonvenieuce of their enterprise; but it required considerable 
"cheek" to ask the State Legislature to oi-ganize a county 
where it was a dense wilderness, and where men had to be im- 
migrated to bold the offices for conducting the first election, 
and where there was only one resident freeholder in the district 
sought to be organized. It also required not a little courage, 
and liberality, to incur at such a time, the expense of organiz- 

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iiig and running a new comity, where their property would 
eventually have to pay a large proportion o£ the expense. In 
order to make a fair showing before the State Legislature, the 
proprietors, in 1856, came to Thunder Bay river, bringing with 
them E. A. Breakenridge, a surveyor, to make a temporary 
survey of a village, to give it a name, and ascertain where the 
two squares were that they intended to offer to donate to the 
county, as a site for the county buildings, in the event of, and 
as an iudaceraent for establishing the county seat at this place. 
This was in the year of the Fremont campaign, and Messrs. 
Fletcher, Lockwood and Breakenridge, being "Fremont meu," 
and the Canada parties, Messrs. Oldfleld and Minor, having no 
prejudices, they had resolved to call the prospective village 
"Fremont." They had brought with them a Fremont flag, 
which they raised on a poie when naming the town. Daniel 
Carter was one of the party, but being opposed to Fremont, he 
refused to help raise the pole, declaring that he "would not 
help raise a flag that he would not support." He moved his 
family to Thunder Bay river in November, 1856, and the same 
fall obtained signers to a petition for the organization of the 
county of Alpena. In regard to this petition, Mr. Carter says, 
in a letter to G. N. Fletcher, under date of February 14th, 1857 : 
"I got the petition, and went up and down the shore, and the 
folks were all glad to see it. I got fifty-one names. Mr. Har- 
rison, owner of the mill at the Highlands, would not sign it. 
He wants the county seat at his place, or be set in Saginaw 

In February. 1857, through the energy of the proprietors 
and the personal efforts of Hon. J. K. Lockwood, the Legisla- 
ture passed the following act, organizing the county of Alpena: 

An Act to Organize the County of Alpena, and to locate the 

County Seat thereof. 

Sec 1. The People of the Slate of Michigan enact, That the 
county of Alpena shall be organized and the inhabitants there- 

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of entitled to all the rights and privileges to which, by law, 
the inhabitants of other organized counties of this State are 

Sec. 2. The county seat of said county is hereby establish- 
ed at the Tillage of Fremont, at the mouth of Thunder Bay 
river, in said county: Provided. That the proprietors of lands 
therein shall convey to said county, for the exclusive use there- 
of, for county buildings and county purposes, free of all charge, 
the following described lots, to wit: Two entire blocks, each 
twenty-four rods square, lying between Eighth and Ninth 
streets, and River and Loekwood streets, in the village of Fre- 
mont, as surveyed by E. A. Breakenridge, Esq., in the year 
(1856) eighteen hundred and fifty-six, on section twenty-two 
(22), in town thirty-one (31) north, of range eight (8) east, 
in said county. 

Sec. 3. There shail be elected in said county of Alpena, on 
the first Tuesday of November, eighteen hundred and fifty- 
seven (1857). all the several county officers to which, by law, 
the said county is entitled; and said election shall, in all re- 
spects, be conducted and held in the manner prescribed by law, 
for holding elections for county and State officers: Provided' 
That the county officers so to be elected, shall be qualified, and 
enter upon the duties of their respective offices, on the firet (1) 
Monday of January, eighteen hundred and fifty-eight (1858), 
and whose term of office will expire at the time prescribed by 
the genera! law. 

Sec. 4 The board of canvassers of said county, under this 
act, shall consist of the presiding inspectors of election from 
each township therein; and said inspectors shall meet at said 
village of Fremont, on the first Tuesday after the election, and 
organize, by appointing one of their number chairman, and an- 
other secretary of said board, and shall thereupon proceed to 
discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers, as in 
other cases of election for county and State officers. 

Sec. 5. The Sherifl' and County Clerk, elected by the pro- 
visions of this act, shail designate a place in the village of Fre- 
mont for holding the Circuit Court in said county, and also suit- 

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able places for the several county offices, as near as practicable 
to the place designated for holding the Circuit Court; and they 
shall make and subscribe a certificate, in writing, describing 
the several places designated, which certificate shall be filed 
and preserved by the County Clerk ; and thereafter the places 
thus designated shall be the places of holding the Circuit Court 
and the county offices, until the Board of Supervisors provide 
suitable accommodations for said court and county offices. 

Sec. 6. The counties of Alcona, Oscoda, Montmorency, and 
that portion of the county of Presque Isle lying east of range 
4 east, be and the same are attached to the county of Alpeua, 
for judicial aud municipal purposes. 

See. 7. All acts, and parts of acts, contravening the provi- 
sions of this act, the same are hereby repealed. 

Approved Feb. 7th, 1857. 

Mr. Lockwood, finding that "the presiding inspectors of elec-: 
tions from each township therein," referred to in the fourth 
section of the above act. had declared "non est inventus," pro- 
cured, ten day later in the session, the passage of an act, as an 
amendment to the fourth section of the first act, which is as 
follows : 

Sec. 1. The People of the Siate of Michigan enact. That 
this act shall stand in lieu of section four (4) of said act, and 
that Daniel Carter, Harvey Harwood and D. D. Oliver are 
hereby made and constituted a board of county canvassers, who 
shall act as inspectors of election; and said inspectors shall 
meet at the said village of Fremont, on the first Tuesday after 
the election, and appoint one of their number chairman, and 
another secretary of said board, aud shall thereupon proceed to 
discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers, as in 
other cases of election of county and State officers, aud shall 
have the power to act as a Board of Supervisors in and for said 
county, for the organization of townships therein, and for other 
purposes, and to hold their office until there be three organized 
townships in said county, and until other supervisors are elect- 
ed and qualified: And provided. That from any cause a va- 

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canoy occurs in said board, before any township is organized, 
the two remaining members of the board shall appoint ; but i£ 
there be one or more townships organized and supervisors elect- 
ed, the vacancy shall be filled by said supervisor or supervisoi-s. 
The compensation of said board shall be the same as that re- 
ceived by siipervisors elected according to law. All acts and 
parts of acta contravening the provisions of this act, be and the 
same are hereby repealed. This act is ordered to take imme- 
diate effect. 

Approved February 14th, 1857, 

It will be seen, by reference to the above amended act of the 
Legislature, that the first Board of Supervisors of Alpena coun- 
ty was made by special act, the members being Daniel Carter, 
of Fremont, Harvey Harwood, of Thunder Bsy Island, and D. 
D. Oliver, of Devil rivei-. They were authorized to act as a 
board of county canvassers, aa well as a Board of Supervisors, 
and were to hold their offices until three towns were organized 
in the county, and to fill any vacancy in the board, if one should 

After being duly notified of their apj^ointment, and about the 
first of June, 1857, the members of the new Board of Super- 
visors for the county of Alpena, met for business, and organ- 
ized by making Daniel Carter chairman, and, having no County 
Cierk, D. D. Oliver was made secretary. Mr, Harwood soon 
moved out of the county, and left the chairman and secretary 
to have it their own way. They were both inexperienced in 
county business, and were at least one hundred miles from a 
precedent; without books, or anything to guide them in their 
new position; and not a man in the county that could legally 
administer an oath, and but one in the county who knew any- 
thing about township business, and his knowledge done them 
no good as a Board of Supervisors, and they had no townships 
organized; but something must be done by the Board of Su- 
pervisors, and they did it as well as they could. 

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The first and most important business before the board, was 
to settle with the neighboring Board of Supervisors of Cheboy- 
gan county, and get back a part, if they could, of the $500 tax 
which the county of Cheboygan had collected of Alpena countj' 
and its territory the preceding winter. Carter and Oliver made 
two trips to Cheboygan, in a sail boat, at a large expcDse, to 
meet the supervisors there, who avoided them, and they failed 
to make a settlement. Oliver then went to Lausing, and had a 
talk with the Auditor General, in regard to the matter, who 
told him if lie would forwa,rd certain papers from Cheboygan, 
before the fourth day of July, 1857, he would charge back the 
tax to Cheboygan county, and credit Alpena county with the 
same. Oliver then made another expensive trip to Cheboygan, 
procured the necessary papers, and sent them to Lansing; but 
heard nothing from the Auditor General, until he was threat- 
ened with publication, and then he received the following letter: 

Auditor General's Office. 
Lansing, Nov. 13th, 1857. 
D. D. Oliveii. Esq. 

Deae Sir: — I have just received your letter of the 11th inst. 
I am not conscious of any neglect in answering your letters. I 
received your letter of July 10th, with statement of the Board 
of Supervisors of Alpena county, and certain transcripts from 
the records of Cheboygan county. I answered you at once, 
stating that I had not the power to help your county, referring 
you to Sec. 99 of the Tax Laws of 1848, as giving the Auditor 
such, and all the power he has to concei the sale of lands. You 
wrote me again on the 21sfc August, which was attended to by 
repeating the answer made to yours of July 10th. I under- 
stand a letter was received, in my absence, a few days since, 
and which has been mislaid, but from what I learn of its con- 
tents, I could have answered only as heretofore, that I have not 
the power to do what you wanted me to do. 
I am, very respectfully, Ac, 


Aud. Gen'l. 

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This letter from the Auditor General explains the inward- 
ness of the whole matter, and closed up the tax business be- 
tween Cheboygan and Alpena counties. The next business be- 
fore the Board of Supervisors, was the organization of the town 
of Fremont, but the board could not act without a petition, and 
as there was not freeholders enough to sign the petition, the 
organization of the township was tabled, to wait for the further 
growth of the place. The next care of the board, was to pro- 
vide suitable books for the county records, and to obtain the 
statutes from the Secretary of State, and other matters, as the 
following letter from the writer to G. N. Fletcher, Esq., will 

Detroit, Nov. 18th, 1857. 
G. N. Fletcher. 

Dear Sir: — A small craft, chartered by Craig & Bro., left 
for Sugar Island, the night I arrived down. I told them yon 
wished to send something up, but could not tell how much, or 
what it was. I shall leave for the upper country in a few days, 
and would like to meet you before I go. . I learn by some per- 
sons from the shore, that the vessel arrived there safely, and 
that it brought but little, and took most of the folks away with 
her. I have written to the Governor, to appoint a Notary Pub- 
lic, and also wiitten to the Secretary of State, for some books. 
I hope to get returns in two or three days. What is to be done 
about the county books? If they go up this fall, they mustf:;o 
up soon, I think you had better come down and see what can 
be done, for I cannot get them. I am using my time and 
money in doing the county business, and that is all I feel able 
to do. 

Yours respectfully. 
Signed, D. D. OLIVER. 

To be a supervisor then, was to work without pay and pay 
your own expenses; and it wore the seat from many a pair of 
supervisor's pants before the board became smooth enough to 

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obganizat:on. 5o 

afford four dollars for sis hours' work, and step over to a full 
treasury and get your money. 

In August of 1857, the schooner John Minor came into 
Thunder Bay river, bringing Mr. Addison F. Fletcher, who 
came in the interest of G. N. Fletcher, Esq., and who superin- 
tended the structure of a rough board store, which was located 
on Water street, at or near its junction with Second street, the 
schooner having brought the luuaber for that purpose. He — 
A. F. F. — took an active part in the early affairs of the town 
and county, being the first clerk of both. He assisted the 
writer in designing the seal of the Circuit Court, and suggest- 
ed that, "If we have the river, we should have the pine trees." 
He, at one time, owned the best property and residence in the 
village of Alpena; but he never had much faith in the large 
growth of the place, and has, up to 1876, persisted in remain- 
ing a noun in the singuiar number. 

In September, 1857, Mr. Joseph K. Miller came to Fremont, 
and with him came a number of settlers. He was a man be- 
yond the middle age ; was well educated, and experienced in 
business. He was a theologian of the severe school, and an in- 
veterate hater of tobacco and whiskey. He was from Boston, 
"The Hub of the World," and having some fanciful notions of 
himself and the place he came from, he placed but little value 
in the people among whom he came to live. He was very 
scrupulous in doing what he supposed to be right; but be dif- 
fered with many of his neighbors in what was right. It is evi- 
dent that man has no standard of right and wrong, for what is 
right in one part of the world, is wrong in another part. What 
is right in one nation, is wrong in another; what is right among 
one class of people, is wrong among another class; what is 
right in the manifestations of religion of one people, would be 
wrong in the manifestations of religion of another, and what 
would be right with one person, would be wrong with another. 
Right and wrong seem to be fictions, invented by parents, so- 

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cietiea and iiatioiis, for their guide and government, and a per- 
son is said to be doing right when obeying those rules or laws, 
and doing wrong when violating them. Eight and wrong with 
the individual depends upon his phrenological make-up — his 
education and growth, and hie sun'ounding influences. These 
form the conscience which the individual is bound to and will 
obey. In proof of the above remarks, the writer refers to the 
fifth chapter of Matthew, and the history of the political strug- 
gle between the northern and southern States, from 1860 to 

Soon after Mr. Miller arrived in Fremont, he was appointed 
to fill the vacancy in the Board of Supervisors, made by the 
moving away of Harvey Harwood, Esq. ; and now, the board, 
being full, was prepared to obey the organic law. Without 
observing technicalities, the board proceeded to organize the 
township of Fremont. This township was made to comprise 
the whole of Alpena county proper, and all the territory attach- 
ed to it, for judicial and municipal purposes. Mr. Miller, in a 
letter to George N. Fletcher, Esq., and dated at Fremont, Oct. 
23d, 1857, says, in regard to the petition necessary to be pre- 
sented to the Board of Supervisors: "On examination of the 
statutes more minutely, I find it requires twelve freeholders to 
organize a township, as that number must petition the super- 
visors for organization. We had onr petition signed by sixteen 
electors, but there are only two freeholders among them all — 
Mr. Oliver and myself — so we must make ten of the others 
freeholders before the day of election, the first day of Novem- 
ber." On the 4th day of November, 1857, as provided by the 
organic law, the first election took place in Alpena county, and 
the township oificers entered upon the duties of their several 
offices as soon as they could be qualified, there being no per- 
son in the county who could legally administer the oath of of- 
fice. Mr. Miller says, in a letter to Mr. Fletcher, dated 'hov. 
4th, 1857 : "We had our comity election to-day, and all passed 

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off pleasEiiitl}' and satisfactorily. Addison, County Clerk; my- 
self County Treasurer and Register of Deeds, Ac. Our neigh- 
bors down the shore came up, and we had quite a respectable 
turn-out; one boatload from Messrs. Harris' place, at the High- 
lands, and one from Black River, If Addieou has not left to 
return, tell him he must ascertain where he must go to be qual- 
ified for County Clerk, by taking the oath of office, and take it 
before coming up, as his services are wanted immediately." 

The official records of the election read as follows: "In pur- 
suance of notice for the first township election, posted accord- 
ing to law, ill the township o£ Fremont, in the county of Al- 
pena, and State of Michigan, held on the fourth day of No- 
vember, 1857: Present, David D. Oliver, Joseph K. Miller 
and Daniel Carter, the board of inspectors, appointed by tlits 
supervisors, to hold said election. Chose David D. Oliver,, 
chairman of said board, and Joseph K. Miller, secretary, and 
appointed Addison Fletcher, clerk; also Isaac Wilson to offici- 
ate as constable for said election. Polls were opened, and the 
following persons were elected to the several township offices: 

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Supervieor — James S. Irwin. 

TowDship Treasurer— Daniel Carter. 

Tow u ship Clerk — Addison Fletcher. 

Highway Commissioners— Daniel Carter, David D. Oliver, 
James Thomas. 

Justices of the Peace~-Eu8sell R. Woodruif, David D. Oliver, 
Lewis Atkins, Isaac Wilson. 

School Inspectors — David D. Oliver, George E. Melville. 

Constables — James Thomas, Robert Bowman, Wiliis Roe. 

Fathmaster — William Sherman. 

Signed, DAVID D. OLIVER, Chairman, 

J. K. MILLER, Secretary. 

Isaac Wilson was from the Highlands, as the place was then 
known- — now Harrisville; and Willis Roe was from Black River. 

The following is a list of the countj' officers elected at the 
first election, held on the 4th day of November, 1857: 

Sheriff — William R. Bowman. 

County Clerk— A. F. Fletcher. 

County Treasurer — J, K. Miller. 

Register of Deeds^J. K. Miller, 

County Surveyor — David D. Oliver. 

Circuit Court Commissioner— David Plough. 

Coroner— A. F. Fletcher. 

It will be observed that in the list of township officers, the 
clerk is "Addison Fletcher," and the clerk of the board of elec- 
tion has signed his name "Addison Fletcher," while in the list 
of county officers his name is written "A. F. Fletcher." This 
discrepancy can be explained by saying the clerk of the board 
of election neglected to write his name in full. 

At the general election, held on the 2iid day of November, 
1858, the whole number of votes east was thirty-five, and were 
all cast iu favor of the general banking law. The county offi- 
cers were all re-elected; and party politics showed itself, only in 

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the State ticket. Moses Wisuer, Eepublican, for Governor, re- 
ceived twenty votes, aud Chas. E. Stewart, Democrat, for Gov- 
ernor, received fifteen votes; the balance o£ the State ticket ran 
about the same, except for Representative in the State Legis- 
lature, and for that office, Daniel Cai-ter, received twenty -one 
votes. At the time Alpena county was organized, all the north- 
ern counties had been thrown into a Representative District, 
without anj' regai'd to their condition, location, or convenience. 
The election returns for the district were to be made to Trav* 
erse City, in Grand Traverse county, that being the largest 
town in the district. The people of Alpena county, finding it 
impracticable to make returns of election to Traverse City, in 
time to be used in the canvass, resolved to have the pleasure of 
voting for a Representative peculiarly their own, and so gave 
their first vote for Daniel Carter. In 1860, Alpena having 
grown to some importance, resolved to send a Representative to 
the State Legislature, and request a seat for him in that body, 
not in opposition to the regular candidate for that office, who 
was a resident of Grand Traverse county, but conjointly with 
him, 89 the territory was ample for two districts, with divided 
interests, Capt, A. E. Persons was nominated for this impor- 
tant and experimental position, and was elected, receiving near- 
ly all the votes of Alpena county and its territory. Captain 
Persons accepted the nomination and election, as complimen- 
tary, but was not a little surprised when requested by his con- 
stituents to go -to Lansing. He regarded the matter of going 
to Lansing but little better than a farce, and that, as a matter 
of course, he would be rejected. But being assured and en- 
couraged by his friends, who thought differently, and who 
agreed to fund his expenses, in case he was not seated, he made 
up his mind to "Try the thing on," aud prepared himself with 
his credentials; went to Lansing; presented himself at the bar 
of the House of Representatives; was administered the oath of 
office, and took his seat with as much freedom and matter of 

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course as if he had been a regularly elected member from tlie 
oldest counties. No questions were asked, and he was address- 
ed as "The member from Alpena." This affair, for boldness 
of conception and execution, has few, if any, precedents in the 
annals of legislation. This ga^e importance and notoriety to 
Alpena, among ber sister towns, and brought to her shore many 
seeking for labor, settlement, or speculation. 

Captain Persons was a man of energy, with good Judgment, 
and kind and obliging manners. He was a faithful friend to 
bis Government during the long struggle with rebellion, and 
by attending to the wants of his county, he gave' pride and sat- 
isfaction to his friends and constituents. 

Subsequently, the district was changed, and in 18G7, was 
composed of the counties of Midland, Isabella, Iosco and Al- 
pena and their territory. The right of selecting a man for 
Kepresentative from this new district was claimed by Alpena, and 
conceded by the other counties; and the Hon. James K. Lock- 
wood was elected. No better man could have been selected to 
take care of the scattered interests of this district, the combined 

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population of which numbered about five thousand. Ten yeaTs 
of experience had made him familiar with the wants of people 
living in new counties. "While he was a member of the Legis- 
lature, he did what he could for the scattered interests of his 
district, and gave general satisfaction. He made a. strong effort 
to secure the swamp lands to the exclusive use and benefit of 
the several counties in which they were located; but he was 
opposed by the southern districts, which had no swamp lauds, 
and was defeated. He was always a persistent guardian of the 
interests and well being of Alpena, and ready at all times to 
encourage and assist in any and every enterprise that had for 
its object the improvement of the place. When he now looks 
liack over two decades, to the time he was lobbying for the or- 
ganization of a county with only one resident freeholder in it, 
in contrast with the present city-^187f)- — and county, with their 
organizations, improvements and wealth, he can feel a con- 
scious pride that he was one of those who were instrumental in 
bringing around these grand results; ami the writer thinks he 
sometimes whispers to himself, "Who thanks me for all this? 
If I had done more for myself, and less for the county, I would 
be the better off for it," 

In 1874, the Hon. Worthy L, Churchill was elected a Eep- 
resentative in the State Legislature, ostensibly from Alpena. 
He was a young man, and mostly a stranger to the people of 
his district and their wants; had then but little iuterfcst in the 
growth of Alpena, and has the credit of being instrumental in 
defeating a bill for the appropriation of land to aid in the con- 
struction of a railroad from Alpena, and to connect with the 
Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw railway. If this be true, the 
people of Alpena have reason to say to him, in spirit, as Balak 
said to Baalim, "I called thee to curse mine enemies, and behold, 
thou hast altogether blest them." 

The people becoming dissatisfied with the name of Fremont, 
petitioned the Legislature to change it to Alpena, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1859, it was so changed, by the following act: 

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An Act to change the name of the village of Fremoni, in the 

county of Alpena. 

Sec. 1. The People of ihe State of Michigan enaci. That the 
name of the village of Fremont, in the county of Alpena, and 
State of Michigan, be and the same is hereby changed to Al- 

Sec. 2. This act shall take effect immediately. 

Approved February 29th, 1859. 

The first township organized after Al[wna, was Ossineke, in 
1867. Prior to this, Harrisville had been organized into a 
township, and subsequently wag made the county seat of Alcona 
county. The township of Corles was organized at the same 
time that Ossineke was, but lived only a brief period, and then 
returned to the embrace of Alpena. The organic territory of 
Ossineke consisted of town 29 north, of ranges 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 
east. The first meeting was held at the boarding bouse of D. 
D. Oliver, on the first Monday in April, 1867. D. D. Oliver, 
George B. Melville and G. W. Hawkins being inspectors of 
election, and G. B. Melville to poet notices. 

The Board of Supervisors was now composed of Daniel Car- 
ter, of the county; Obed Smith, of Alpena; D. D. Oliver, of 
Ossineke, and L. E. Dorr, of Harrisville. As soon as these 
towns were organized, Messrs. Carter and Oliver ceased to be 
county members of the Board of Supervisors, as by the law or- 
ganizing the county of Alpena, their terms of ofl5ce should ex- 
pire as soon as three towns were organized in the county. They 
had been on the board together a full decade. They differed 
in politics, Carter being a Democrat and Oliver a Kepublicao; 
but they made it a standard principle never fo allow pai-ty poli- 
tics to interfere with the interests of the county. They had 
always worked together in harmony, for the benefit of the 
Thunder Bay region, and especially Alpena; and now, when 
they retired from the Boai-d of Supervisors, they did so Trith 
the conscioosuess of having performed the duties of their trust 

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without (ear or favor, and at all times to the best o£ their abil- 
ities. Tliey left no bonds for the county to provide for, except 
those given to the brave men who volunteered to help silence 
the thunders of a southern rebellion, and give freedom to three 
millions of slaves. Their Dames are as follows: James J. Pot- 
ter, Moses Bingham, Arthur Irwin, Deiitou Sellicb, James 
Whalen. Frank Squires, John Kaufman, Solomon Evans, John 
Ellsworth. George Plude and John Dawson. 

The township of Corles, having failed to keep up its organi- 
zation, the Board of Supervisors was convened, on the 19th day 
of May, 18(58, to take some action in regard to the matter, 
James K. Lockwood, Ira Stout and Uavid D. Oliver were ap- 
pointed a committee to present the matter to Judge S. M. Green, 
for his advice. The committee made its report to Judge Green, 
and the organization was restored to Corles. At this session 
of the board, a resolution was passed, to purchase a piece of 
land at Harrisville, on which to erect buildings for a poor 
house and farm, at a cost of 35,000, to be raised by tax of 
81,000 a year, until paid. The board at this session was com- 
posed of Ira Stout, of Alpena; Lawrence R. Dorr, of Harris- 
ville, and David D. Oliver, of Ossineke, Oliver having been 
elected Supervisor of that township. 

Some time in 1868, the township of Alcona was organized; 
and after the spring election of 18(S9, the Board of Supervisors 
was composed of the following gentlemen: James K. Lock- 
wood, of Alpena; L. R. Dorr, of Harrisville; D. Stewart, of 
Corles; E. E. Haynes, of Alcona, and David D. Oliver, of Os- 
sineke. On the 20th of May, 1870, the Board of Supervisors 
was called together, for the purpose of organizing the township 
of Rogers, in Presque Isle county. Heretofore Alpena had 
taken the lead of all the towns, in political matters; but now a 
shadow was stealing over it, calculated to injure, if not to crush 
it. During the past winter, Alcona county had been organized, 
taking with it the unorganized county of Oscoda and the or- 

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gsDized towns of Harrisville and Alcona; and the towneliip of 
Corles having failed to keep up its organization, it left only two 
organized towns in the county of Alpena, the Supervisors of 
which were Charles W. Richardson, of Alpena township, and 
George J, Eohinson, of Ossiueke. The petition for the oigan- 
ization of the township of Rogers was signed by many of the 
best men in Alpena, they little dreaming that they were fur- 
nishing means for much annoyance, if not for their own de- 
struction. A remonstrance had been made, but Supervisor 
Robinson had it his own way, and wishing to befriend Mr, 
Molitor, organized the township. Alpena, like the bird after 
which it was named — partridge — had now grown to good size, 
and had grown fat and plump, under the fostering care of its 
old guardians, was now watched by a number of Hawks, who 
were only waiting for its protectors to be absent, to pounce up- 
on and gobble it up. One of thyee Hawks had his nest at Rog- 
ers City, and another at Ossineke, and a third had a temporary 
nest in Alpena, but carried all his spoils to a more permanent 
one, in Canada^ After considerable maneuvering, the time 
came for the descent, when the bird dodged under a city char- 
tor, and was safe. 

The Board of Snpervisoi's again met on the 20th of Septem- 
der, 1870, and there were then present, Chas. W. Richardson, 
of Alpena; George J. Robinson, of Ossineke, and Albert Mol- 
itor, of Rogers City, and the Clerk. At this session commenc- 
ed a series of aggressions by the majority of the boei-d, which 
was so continued that it compelled the people to seek relief in 
a city organization. In a speech made by Hun. Seth L. Car- 
penter, at a caucus held in the Evergreen Hall, March 2yth, 
1871, where the people threw aside party politics to put in 
nomination the best men from both parties to fill the first ofBces 
of the new city, and at which caucus he, who was nominated 
for the first Mayor, said: "So far the organization of the city 
of Alpena has been a necessity, urged upon us by the aggres- 

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sive majority of our Board of Supervisors, whom we charitably 
believe misrepreseuted the small minority of the inhabitants of 
the county. But their aggressions have been of such a charac- 
ter ae to drive oar citizens en masse, without regard to party 
politics, to seek relief by a city organization." 

Among the aggressive acts of the Board of Supervisors, 
passed at this session, and subsequently, before the 20th of 
January, 1871, were resolutions giving the Sheriff the illegal 
salary of $1,000 per year; to the County Clerk the large salary 
of $1,200 per year; to the County Treasurer $1,000, and the 
Prosecuting Attorney $1,000 per year. They detached large 
territory from Alpena, and attached the same to the townships 
of Ossineke and Rogers, They considered favorably a peti- 
tion of J. B. Tuttle and S. E. Hitchcock, for locating a site 
for a court house on lands belonging to Hitchcock, and for 
raising money for building the same. They also passed a res- 
olution, making S. L. Carpenter, George J. Robinson and Al- 
bert Molitor a board of commissioners of immigration ; and, also, 
"It shall be the duty o£ said board to encourage immigration, by 
such measures as they may, in their discretion, deem proper." 
Supervisor Robinson offered a resolution to purchase a tract of 
laud at Ossineke, for the poor farm. After these aggressions 
had been continued for some time, the citizens of Alpena be- 
came alarmed, and held several meetings, to determine what 
course to pui-sue. They finally held a meeting on the 8th day 
o£ February, 1871, "To tjike into consideration the propriety of 
having a city corporation. At this meeting, "William Jenney, 
Esq., was called to the chair, and P. M. Johnson was made sec- 
retary. The meeting passed a resolution, requesting the Board 
of Supervisors "To take no action for the purpose of incorpor- 
ating the village of Alpena." A committee was appointed by 
the chair, to draft a charter for the city, to be presented to the 
people of Alpena, for their consideration. Messrs. S. L. Car- 
penter, J. H. Stevens, J. A. Case, A, W. Comstock, D. McRae, 

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J. D. Holmes and A. Hopper were appoiuted sucb committee. 
Tbey were instructed to present Buch charter to the adjourned 
meeting. "The deficiencies of our present township govern- 
ment" were the cause which led to these proceedings. Soon 
after the committee report was made, a petition was signed by 
one hundred and twenty-one citizens of Aipena, and forwarded 
to Lansing, asking the State Legislature for a city corporation. 
A remonstrance was also sent, signed by forty-nine persons; 
and Mr. Bostwick and five others who signed the petition, also 
signed the remonstrance, saying, "They did not know the char- 
acter of the petition when tliey signed it." An efficient corps 
of lobbyists accompanied the petition, and it was not long be- 
fore the attention of the Legislature was given to the pressing 
demands of the citizens of Alpena, and a charter was granted 
them, the first section of which reads as follows: "That so 
much of the township of Alpena, in the county of Alpena, as is 
included in the following described territory : The southwest 
quarter of section 13, the south half of sections 14, 15 and 1(>, 
the whole of sectons 21, 22 and 28, the west fractional half of 
section 24, and fractional sections 23, 26 and 27, in town 31 
north, of range 8 east, in the State of Michigan, be and the 
same is hereby set off from said township of Alpena, and de- 
clared to be a city, by the name of the City of Alpena, by which 
name it shall hereafter be known; and by that name may sne, 
and be sued, implede and be impleded, complain and defend in 
any court of competent jurisdiction. May have a common seal, 
and alter it at pleasure, and may take, hold, purchase, lease, 
convey and dispose of any real, personal and mixed estate, for 
the use of said corporation." The law provided also, that there 
should be three wards in the city, and so giving it three Super- 
visors. The city charter provided, also, that the annual elec- 
tion of city officers shall be held on the first Monday of April 
of each year. The Mayor, Comptroller and Treasurer were to 
be elected annually ; the Recorder every two years, and the full 

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term o£ the Justice of the Peace was three years. On the ward 
tickets two Aldermen were to be elected at the first election, 
one for one year, and one for two years, and thereafter one Al- 
derman to bo elected each year, and to hold office for two years; 
the Common Council to be composed of the Mayor, Eecorder 
and Aldermen. The officers to bo appointed by the Common 
Council were Attorney, Marshal, Street CommiBsioner. Director 
of the Poor, and Engineers of the Fire Department. At the 
first city election, the following gentlemen were elected to fill 
the first offices; Seth li. Carpenter, for Mayor; Abram Hop- 
per, for Recorder; James A. Case, fur Comptroller; Albert L. 
Power, for Treasurer; George Richardson, Justice of the Peace 
for three years, and Ira Stout for two years. In the First ward, 
Alexander McDonald, for Supervisor; George Richardson, for 
Alderman two years; John H, Stevens, for Alderman for one 
year, and Frank Drew for Constable. In the Second ward, 
James J. Potter, for Supervisor; Henry S. Seage, for Alder- 
man for two years; Ira Stout, for Alderman for one year, and 
Richard Campbell, for Constable. In the Third ward, James 
McTavish, for Supervisor; Samuel Boggs, for Alderman for 
two years; Gordon Davis, for Alderman for one year, and Tim- 
othy Crowley, for Constable. 

The incorporation of the city was thought, at the time, to be 
a fearful experiment ; that it would subject the citizens to a 
large increase of taxes, and result in financial ruin and death. 
Bat this was their only alternative, and the people preferred to 
take the chances of committing suicide, than to endure uncer- 
tain torture and ruin that threatened them by the aggressive 
acts of the majority of the Board of Supervisors. Contrary to 
the expectations of the most hopeful, the experiment Las proved 
a success, paying for all it cost, if not more. 

The city government, with few exceptions, has been conduct- 
ed with wisdom and economy, and if the citizens have to pay 
more taxes, they have more conveniences and better protection 

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for life and property. While it required tlie united eiforts of 
all the people to make the experiment a success, yet the city is 
largely indebted to the integrity, economy and persevorenee of 
its eseciitive officers, who were leading business men, and per- 
sonally interested in the growth and prosperity of the city. 
Their names are giren in succession, up to and including the cen- 
teiiaial year of 1S7G. The first Mayor was Seth L. Carpenter; 
the second Mayor was Albert Pack; the third Mayor was An- 
drew W. Comstock, and the fourth Mayor is George L. Maltz. 

The following is a list of city officers in 187(5; Mayor, Geo. 
L. Maltz; Eecorder, A. E. McDonald; Comptroller, J. D. 
Turnbull; Treasurer, Charles B. Greely; Justices of the Peace, 
Paul Dane, A. R. McDonald and Chas. A. D^Aigle. Supervis- 
ora^First ward, Thomas G. Spratt; Second ward, Ira Stout; 
Third ward, Marshall S. Bedford. Aldermen — First ward, 
Charles H. Rice and George Richardson; Second ward, James 
Tims and J. P. Healy; Third ward, Jason Gillett and J. D. 
Sheahy. Board of Education — ^First ward, B, F, Starbird and 
H: R. Morse; Second ward, J. C. Yiall and Iva Stout; Third 
ward, Paul Dane and D. McRae. City Attorney, V. C. Biirn- 
ham; City Marshal, Douglass Scott; Chief Engineer, A. L. 

The incorporation of the city had detached a large portion of 
the inhabitants frora the township of Alpena, yet there remain- 
ed enough to keep up the organization, and N. M. Braekinreed 
was elected Supervisor. He was a good scholar, a persevering 
business man, and well calculated to build up the much reduc- 
ed interests of the township. On May 8th, 1871, the Board of 
Supervisors of Alpena county, met for business, it being the 
first session of the board after the city elei'tion, and was com- 
posed of the following members: N. M. Braekinreed, of Al- 
pena ; A. McDonald, First ward, city ; J. J. Potter, Second ward, 
city ; J. McTavisb. Third ward, city ; G. J, Robinson, Ossineke, 
and Albert Molitor, Rogers. At this session Messrs. Robinson 

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and Molitor were absent. The Hawks did not care to meet the 
bird they had so much sought to maim or destroy, which, re- 
taining its name, had changed to an Eagle of formidable dimen- 
sions, and on which the Hawks could now have but little im- 
pression. One of the Hawks, through the influence of the 
people of Alpena, who wished to be rid of him, obtained a quasi 
organization of the county of Presque Isle, where he continued 
to depredate, until he became so intolerable that he was shot. 
But little inquiry has been made iu regard to who it was that 
did the shooting, the people all seemiug to saj-, "Sic semper 

On the 15th of March, 1873, the Board of Supervisors met 
for the purpose of erecting two townships — one to be called 
Long Eapids, and the other AVilson. The territory embraced 
in the township of Long Bapids is as follows: The north half 
of town 31 north, of ranges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 east, and the 
whole of town 32 north, of ranges 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 east. 
The first annual meeting was to be held at the Jones school 
house, in the Louden settlement, on the 7th day of April, 1873. 
W. H. Marston, J. O. Cai-r and John Louden were appointed 
to act as a board of inspectors of election, and AVilliam E. Jones 
to post notices. The territorj' embraced in the township of 
Wilson was as follows; Commencing at the southeast corner 
of section 36, in town 30 north, of range 7 east, running thence 
northerly on the town line between ranges 7 and 8 east, to the 
northeast corner of section 1, in town 30 north, of range 7 east ; 
thence easterly on town line to the southeast corner of section 
36, town 31 north, of range 7 east; thence northerly on town 
line, to the northeast corner of section 24, in town 31 north, of 
range 7 east ; thence westerly on section line, to the meridian ; 
southerly on meridian line, to the southwest corner of section 
31, in town 30 north, of range 1 east; thence easterly on town 
line, to the place of beginning. The first annual meeting was 
to be held at the boarding house, on the Luce ftirm, on the 7th 

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day of April, 1873. J^oble M. Brackinreed, George Herrnn 
and Charles B. Greely were made inspectors of election, and N. 
M, Brackinreed to poet notice of election. The members com- 
prising the board at this time, and who voted for the erection 
of these townships, were, G. J. Robinson, of Ossineke; N. M. 
Brackinreed, of Alpena; D. McEae, City Comptroller; A. L. 
Power, First ward, and John D. Pott«r, Second ward. At the 
end of this chapter is given a list of the county officers and a 
list, also, of the several township officers fi'om the time 
of their organization, up to and including the centennial 
year of 1876, so far as the writer is in possession of the 
facts. This is done for the benefit of those who may wish to 
use this work for reference. The first oiEcers elected in the 
township and county of Alpena, are^iven in full before in this 
chapter, and also the city officers of 1870. 


Representative in State Legislature, from Alpena county — 
Alonzo E. Persons. 

Sheriff— John W. Glennie. 

County Clerk— David D. Oliver. 

Register of Deeds — Abram Hopper. 

County Treasurer — David Plongh. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Oliver T. B. Williams. 

Judge of Probate — David D. Oliver. 

Circuit Court Commissioner — Oliver T. B. Williams. 

County Surveyor^ — David D. Oliver. 

Coroners — Levi 0. Harris and Hugh Johnson. 


Supervisor — J. K, Lock wood. 
Township Cleric — A, Hopper, 
Township Treasurer — H. R. Morse. 
Justice of the Peace — Martin Minton. 
CommiBsioner of Highways— S. E. Hitchcock. 

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Sheriff— A. J. Gary. 

County Treasurer — Uavid Plough. 

Judge of Probate— J. B. Tuttle. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Obed Smith. 

Count}' Clerk — Robert White. 

Register of Deeds — Abram Hopper. 

Circuit Court Commissioner— J. B. Tuttle. 

County Surveyor — David D. Oliver. 

Coroners — Samuel E. Hitchcock and Josiah Frink. 

County Supervisors — D. D. Oliver and Daniel Carter, 


Sheriff— J. C. Parke. 

County Treasurer — David Plough. 

Judge o£ Probate— J. B. Tuttle. 

Prosecuting Attorney — Obed Smith. 

County Clerk— Robert White. 

Register of Deeds— A. Hopper, 

Circuit Court Commissioner^ J. B. Tuttle. 

County Surveyor — David D. Oliver. 

Coroner8^8. E. Hitchcock and Joeiah Frink. 

Supervisor — James K, Lockwood. 
Township Clerk — A. Hopper. 
Township Treasurer — James A. Case. 

Justices of the Peace — Obed Smith, four years ; Frederick 
N. Barlow, three years. 

Highway Commissioner — James Cavanagh. 


Supervisor — Ira Stout. 
Township Clerk — A. Hopper. 
Township Treasurer — J. A. Case. 
School Inspector — A, W. Comstock. 

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Justices of the Peace — James Cavaiiagh; to fill vacancy o£ 
F. N. Barlow, Meade N, S. Macartney; to fill vacancy of Mar- 
tin Minton, P, M. Johnson. 

Highway Commissioners — Samuel Boggs and Thos. Murray. 

Constables — Timothy Crowley, John MuKay ami Thomas 


Sheriff — Orin Erskine. 

County Treasurer — Josiah Frink. 

Judge of Probate— J. B. Tuttle. 

Prosecuting Attorney— Obed Smith. 

County Clerk — Pulton Bundy. 

Register of Deeds — A. Hopper. 

Circuit Coui-t Commissioner — Truman P. Tucker. 

County Surveyor— P. M. Johnson. 

Coroners— J. W. Glenuie and L. V. Vincent. 


Supervisor-^ James K. Lockwood. 

Township Clerk — Abram Hopper, 

Township Treasurer — A. L, Power. 

Justice of the Peace — J. A. Case. 

Highway Commissioner — Thomas Murray. 

School Inspector — F. N. Barlow. 

Constables — Timothy Crowley and Wm. Andrews. 


Supervisor- — Charles W, Richardson, 
Township Clerk — ^ Abram Hopper. 
Township Treasurer— Albert L. Power, 
Justice of the Peace-^Ira Stout. 
Highway Commissioner — Daniel Carter. 
School Inspector — ^Andrew W. Comstock. 
Constables— William E. Rice, Fulton Bundy, E. K. Potter 
and Orin Erstine. 

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Overseers of Higbways—-Fir8t district, George Richardson; 
third district, Albert Merrill ; fourth district, Geo. C. Herroii ; 
fiftli district, James O. CaiT. 

Sheriff — James Cavanagh. 
County Treasurer — Abrara Hopper. 
Judge of Probate — David Plough. 
Pi-osecuting Attorney — Obed Smith. 
County Clerk— F. Bundy. 
Register of Deeds — James A. Case. 
Circuit Court Commissioner — Obed Smith. 
County Surveyor — John Lyman. 
Coroners — James J. Potter and Isaac Wilson. 


Supervisor — -David D. Oliver. 
Township Treasurer— George J. Robinson, 
Township Clerk — Fayette Jones. 

Justices of the Peace^Charles E. Blanchard and Dougald 

Highway Commissioners — David Oliver and Amasa Chaffee. 
Constables— John Ellsworth and Amasa Chaffee. 
School Inspectors — David D. OHver and R. E. Galloj). 


Supervisor — David D, Oliver. 

Township Treasurer-^George B, Melville. 

Township Clerk— Reuben E, Gallup. 

Highway Commissioners — William Cole, Joseph Reed and 
John Riddle. 

Justices of the Peace — Joseph H. Parsons, Samuel Ellsworth 
and Robert B. Oliver. 

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Supervisor — George J. Eobinsou. 

Township Treasurer — John Ellsworth. 

Township Clerk — Alonzo Randall. 

Highway Commissioners — A. M. Chaffoe, Jeremiah Patnoil 
and Dancan McKillop. 

Justices of the Peace — Samuel Ellsworth, Duncan MeKillop, 
Jeremiah Patnod and AVilliam Shortland. 

School Inspectors— G. J. Eobinaon and D, McKillop. 

Constables — J. J. McFall, James Powers and William Jolin- 

Sheriff — James Cavanagh. 
County Clerk — Seth L. Carpenter. 
County Treasurer— Abram Hopper, 
Prosecuting Attorney — J, B. Tuttle. 
Eegister of Deeds — Ales, McDonald. 
Circuit Coui-t Commissioner^ — J. H, Stevens. 
County Surveyer- T. McGinn. 
Coroners- — D. Carter and , . Simons, 

Sheriff — Thomas B. Johnston. 
County Treasurer — A. Hopper. 
County Clerk — Chas, N. Coi-nell. 
Prosecuting Attorney — V. C. Bumbam. 
County Surveyor — Thomas White. 
Roister o£ Deeds— A. McDonald, 
Circuit Court Commissioner — John H, Stevens- 

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Sheriff — -Thomas B. Johnstou. 
County Treasurer — Abram Hopper. 
County Clerk — Charles N. Cornell. 
Register o£ Deeds— Ales. McDonald. 
Prosecuting Attorney — V. C Burnham, 
County Surveyor— Thomas White. 
Circuit Court Commissioner — John H. Stevens, 


At the spring election, seventy-six votes vers cast iu this 

Supervisor— James A. Case, 

Township Clerk- Conrad Wessel. 

Township Treasurer — Henry L. Oppeuborn. 

Highway Commissioner — Patrick Egan. 

Justices o£ the Peace— Richard Naylor, James B. "\Vhit«, 
William Lumsden and William Pulford. 

School In.spector — James Glennie. 

Constables — -Walter Gavagan, Jeremiah Scars, Chas, Cook 
and Chas. Gierke. 


At the spring election, this township cost one hundred votes; 
nearly three times as many as was cast in the county of Alpenn 
^ind all her territory in 1858. 

Supervisor— John Ferguson. 

Township Clerk — Joseph Cavanagh. 

Township Treasurer — Darwin J. Soper. 

Justices of the Peace — H. Hodgius, W, W. Hicks, James O. 
Carr and A, W. McFarland. 

Commissioner of Highways — David McNeil. 

Sehoiil Inspector — Albert Miltou. 

Constables— Charles Keating, John McMillen and John 

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This township cast sixty votes, at the spring election. 

Supervisor — Noble M. Brackinreed. 

Township Clerk— Pardon Buell. 

Township Treasurer — John McSorley. 

Justices of the Peace — J. McSorley, George M. Green, Jas. 
Kimball and George 0. Herron. 

Highway Commissioner — Richard M. Cornell. 

School Inspector — N. M. Brackinreed. 

Constables — Thomas Smith, Robert MeLeod, Joseph AVymai* 
and Daniel F. Carr. 


Supervisor — Israel G, Sanborn, 

Township Clerk — Chris Rimer. 

Township Treasurer— David Oliver. 

Justices of the Peace — Israel G. Sanborn, David Oliver, Jas. 
Lewis and John Force. 

Highway Commissioner — John E, Sanborn. 

School Inspector — Martin Benjamin. 

Coiistables — Andrew Poths, James Lenox, John P, Profrock 
and Thomas Sampson. 

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The "Jny House," built in the fall of 1844, as mentioned in 
Chapter I, was built near the corner of River anil First etueets. 
Ill the fall of 184(i, a party of four families of Freucli liaU- 
breeds, came from Mackinaw to the mouth of Thunder Bay 
river, for the purpose of hunting and trapping. They occupied 
the "Jay House," and built two others. Of course, they could 
not be called settlers, for they came there only to spend the 
winter, and went away again in the spring- Walter Scott came 
to Thunder Bay river in 1851, for the purpose of fishing and 
trading with the Indians. He moved awav in ISn?, and so did 

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not become a settler. The first settler that came to Fremont, 
was Daniel Carter, who moved his family to Thunder Bay rivtr 
in the fall of lS5Ct. He came in the interest of G. N. Fletcher, 
nnd was accompanied by a few men, who came to work during 
the winter, Mr. Carter's family consisted of wife and danjrhter, 
and were the first resident ladies of Fremont. Mr. Carter and 
men chopped a narrow strip of timber, on both sides of the river, 
and cut the timber in Thunder Bay i-iver, nearly up to the 
South Branch, with a view of clearing it for running logs. 
This was the first work done, looking toward the improvement 
of the place. 

When A. F. Fletcher came to Fremont, in 1857, a number of 
mechanics came with him. He brought lumber for building a 
store and boarding house, and under date ot August 30th, he 
writes to G. N. Fletcher, Esq., and says: "I arrived safely 
here Wednesday noon, and, found Mr. Carter at liome. He 
had been to Duncan, had not commenced the boarding house, 
but we will have it up day after to-morrow. I am building 
that and the store a little stronger than you spoke of, as Dan, 
says it would not last through the winter, if I did not. We 
cannot tell where the store ought to be, but will get it as near 
as possible." At this time only a temporary survey of the (own 
had been made, and for this reason, it was impossiblw to know 
where to place the building. In September of the same year, 
John McNevins came to Fremont with some men, to make some 
timber for a mill dam, to be erected across Thunder Bay river; 
but the work was soon after discontinued, on account of the 
unparalleled depression in financial matters. It may be well to 
remark, that the year that Alpena county was organized and 
assumed a place among the sister comities of the State, was re- 
markable as beiug the most depressing year, financially, that 
this country ever saw; business being good in 1856, when 
placed in contrast with 1857. ■ The following letter, written by 
John Oldfield, Esq., to George N. Fletcher, and dated Duoville, 

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Ontfirio, Oct. 14th, 1857, gives a plain and coucise statement 
of fiuftncial affairs at that time; it says: 

"Your favor of 8th instant, in relation to Thurnier Bay af- 
fairs, came to hand last evening. I immediately saw Mr. Minor, 
on the subject, who is decidedly of the opinion, as well as my- 
self, that it wiJI be imprudent lo attempt to go on with the 
work, unless, indeed, that you are prepared to furnish the means 
yourself. As far as I am concerned, I cannot furnish one dol- 
lar towards it; indeed, there is such a general depression in all 
financial matters here, that I cannot raise money enough to run 
my mill, and intend shutting down. All business seems com- 
pletely paralyzed; nobody pays, nor can pay, and 1 find myself 
with a large amount of bills receivable, some past due, and 
others falling due at an early date, but no raouey, and no pros- 
pects of getting it. Even clear lumber, in Albany, will not 
bring the cash. With all these depressing circumstances 
staring us in the face, Mr. Minor and myself can see no other 
way but to stop the work, and, consequently, do not think it 
worth going up to lay any of the piers this tall, as you suggest. 
"Yours truly, 

'^Signed, J. OLDFIELD." 

Mr. Fletcher, owning a half interest in the property, and not 
being so much affected by the hard times as his co-partners, 
for the reason that he had sold his mill pi-operty at St. Clair, 
prior to the panic, was disposed to go on with the work, hut 
the other proprietors not furnishing means, the company's work 
ceased. Mr. Fletcher continued to make improvements in his 
own interests, and it was very fortunate for the [jeople of Al- 
pena county, and its organization, that he was able and willing 
to do so. 

In the fall of 1857, Mr. G. N. Fletcher, in company with 
other parties, started a store in Fremont, under the firm name 

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"Miller, Fletcher & Co." They kept h general assortment o£ 
such goods fls are wanted in a new, isolated place, even whis- 
key and tobacco, and these articles Mr. Miller was very much 
opposed to handling. The work on the mill dam, for the Thun- 
der Bay Dam Co., as it was called, was discontinued; but Mr. 
Fletcher continued to give employment to most of the people 
o£ Fi-emont, on his own account, and built a dock, and a large 
building on the corner of Second and Water streets, and known 
in 1867 as the "Myers Block." It should have been known as 
the "Miller Block," for he had the care of building it, and oc- 
cupied it for many years. It will be referred to in the rest of 
this work as the "Myers Block." 

All the proprietors, except G. N. Fletcher, having business 
relations other than at Fremont, were much embarrassed by 
the unprecedented hard times that shotjk many off their feet, 
financially, did but little for the improvement of Alpena, dur- 
ing 1857 and the first half of 1858. In the fall of 1858, men 
began to multiply in Alpena, "and sons and daughters were 
born unto them." Financially, matters having improved a little, 
Messrs. Lockwood, Minor and Fletcher resolved to go on with 
the work at Fremont. In pursuance of this resolution, the 
schooner J. S. Minor came to Fremont, having on board about 
thirty persons, among whom were Messrs. E. K. Potter, Abram 
Hopper, W. Stevens, Moses Bingham and Thomas Murray. 
Alexander Archibald and family and Samuel Boggs and family 
were among the number. Many of those who came were me- 
chanics. Messrs. Archibald and Murray came for the purpose 
of lumbering for the firm of Lockwood & Minor, having a con- 
tract to cut, haul and run onto the rapids, one million feet of 
logs, more or less, at one dollar and seventy-five cents per thou- 
sand feet, being the first contract by the proprietors of Fremont, 
for cutting logs on Thunder Bay river. Mr. Archibald, after 
building a frame house for his family, near the corner o£ Sec- 
ond aiid River streets north, (for buildings in Fremont at this 

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timtj were few, aiid not far from the woods, ) commenced to cut 
his supply road to the lumber woods, this being the first road 
made iu the county that exceeded a mile in length. He made 
this road uearly on the same line that the so called Bection Line 
Koad is now on, until he reached section 13, in town 31 north, 
of range east, and thence northwest to Thunder Bay river, in 
section 2, of the same town and range. Men's wages at this 
time were from $14 to $10 per month, and they agree*.] to stay 
and rnn tlie logs in the spring. The very low price for putting 
in the logs, and the v.-ages of the men, show that there was not 
much "boom" to business at that data. Mr. E, K. Potter scaled 
and marked the logs for this camp this winter, and to him must 
be accorded the honor of scaling the first log on Thunder Bay 
river, not barring the honor due the scaler who scaled in the 
camp of Alvin Cole during the same winter. It is claimed by 
William Bonlloii, in his History of Alpena, that Mr. E. K. 
Potter measured the first cargo of lumber "that left Alpena, 

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and that the echooiier Meridian, Capt. Flood, carried the first 
cargo of lumber from Alpena." If he had added the word 
"City," he would have been correct. In writing a history of 
the county, nice distinctions should be observed, between the 
whole county, and a certain locality, where both have the same 
name. While it would be true that Mr. Potter measured the 
first cargo of lumber that left Alpena city, and that the schooner 
Meridian, Capt. Flood, carried the first cargo of lumber from 
the city of Alpena, yet it would not be true in regard to the 
county of Alpena, for the writer measured a cargo of lumber, 
and shipped it on his schooner, the Marshall Ney, John AV. 
Paston, Captain, before the county had an organization. 

In December, 1858, Messrs. John Cole and Alvin Cole ar- 
rived in Fremont, accompanied by a large number of men. 
Alvin Cole came for the purpose of lumbering for George N. 
Fletcher, having taken a contract of him, similar to the one 
taken by Messrs. Archibald and Mnrray. The logs were to be 
cut in the same vicinity, and banked near each other in the 
river. John Cole was a millright, and came to Fremont for 
the purpose of building two large sawmills, to be run by water 
power. One was to be erected on the east side of Thunder Bay 
river, for George N. Fletcher, and the other on the west side, 
for the firm of Lockwood & Minor. The timber was all made, 
hauled and framed for the mill, during the winter and spring. 
The mill dam was not built, according to expectations, on ac- 
count of some disappointment or disagreement among tlie pro- 
prietors. The work of building the two sawmills was suspend- 
ed, for the reason that they had no dam for water, and the two 
mill frames were piled away to await further .consideration and 
development. The timber for the Fletcher mill was burned in 
1860, in a sweeping fire that burned over a large district around 
Alpena, and came very near burning what there was of the 
town. Althoogh this was considered a great loss to Mr. 
Fletcher at the time, yet it was a blessing in disguise. It sav- 

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ed his timber until it was more valuable, aud relieved him of 
the embarrassing perplexity that attended milling at that time, 
in Alpena, aud in which his co- partners were soon after engag- 
ed; and while their business did more to build up the village, 
it put less money into their pockets. The mill frame made 
for Lockwood & Minor was not put up for several years. 

The survey of the village of Fremont, by E. A. Breakenridge, 
was only a temporary one, without map or record, aud was 
made for the purpose mentioned in Chapter III. As by law, it 
was imperative that a snrvey must be made of the village, and 
a map of the same be placed on record in the Register's office, 
with a conveyance to the public of the right of way of the 
streets of the same, before lots could be legally sold, the pro- 
prietors were resolved to have the survey made and recorded. 
In April, 1858, the writer was engaged by Messrs. Fletcher, 
Lockwood and OJdfield, to make the survey, under their super- 
vision, all of them being in Fremont at the time, Mr, OUlfield 
being particularly anxious to have a thorough survey made. 
The writer then organized his party for the work, aud after as- 
certaining the variation of the needle, and administered the 
oath to his chain-bearers, proceeded to make the survey, as fol- 
lows: Commeuciiig at the southeast corner of section 22, 
theuce north nine and one-half degrees east, 3.78 chains, to 
a point where he planted a post. From this post he projected 
a Hue bearing north, fifty-one degrees east, and south, fifty- 
one degrees west, for a base line, and named it First street. 
He then projected another line, bearing north, thirty-nine 
degi'ees west, and south, thirty-nine degrees east, from the 
post for a meridian line, and called it Eiver street On 
this meridian line, south to the bay, posts were set at 
proper distances, and at all proper places between this line 
and the river. On this meridian, northward to Ttiunder 
Bay river, posts were placed at proper distances. Posts 
were set at all proper places between this line and the river, 

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and the river was meandered up to the section line between 
sectionB 21 and 22. The base line was carried east, across the 
river, to a point designated by one of tlie proprietors, and an- 
other post was planted, and another meridian line projected, 
and named Fletcher street. On this meridian line, south thir- 
ty-nine degrees east, to the bay, posts were set at proper dis- 
tances, between this line and the river. The meridian line was 
also extended north, thirty-nine degrees west, from the said 
post, to Beech street, and posts set at proper distances on this 
line, and between it and the river. Then Beech street was run 
north, fifty-one degrees east, to Oidfield street, and thence on 
Oldfleld street to Bridge street, and posts set on these streets, 
at proper distances; thence north, fifty -one degrees east, on 
Bridge street, to Miller street, and thence north, thirty-nine de- 
grees west on Miller street to Mackinaw street, and posts were set 
at proper places. Boon after the field work was completed, the 
writer made a map of his work, and presented it to J. K. Lock- 
wood, who approved of it, and went witli the writer to Mortimer 
L- Smith, in Detroit, who made two copies on cloth, one for Mr. 
Lockwood and one for the writer, and which copy the writer has 
yet in his possession, Mr. Fletcher was not satisfied with the 
survey, for the reason that some of the streets reached the river, 
and that the meridian, on both sides of the river, was too close 
to it for mill purposes. The proprietors, after making many 
important alterations, bad the mutilated and changed map of 
Oliyer's survey lithographed and put upon the records, ostensi- 
bly as the survey of E. A. Breakenridge. . 

There is no acknowledged survey of the city on record, nor 
is there any original field notes on record. E. A. Breaken- 
ridge is credited with the survey, and Oliver with the mistakes, 
if any are found. The west square, belonging to the county, 
was named Victoria Square, in respect to the proprietors who 
resided in the Queen's Dominion ; and the east square was call- 
ed Jessie Square, Jessie being the name of the wife of General 

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Fremont, after wlioui the village was named. One half of the 
proprietors then resided in Canada, mad hired their help there; 
and the other half resided in Michigan, and per sequence the 
town and county received their immigration from both places. 
They were hardy, industrious and enterprising people, who 
came for the purpose of making for themselves homes, and to 
build up communities and industries for themselves and their 
children; and to learn how well they have done their task, you 
have only to look over Alpena county in 1870. 

In January, 1859, provisions began to be very scarce in Fre- 
mont and in the lumber camps, and by the last of February, 
many people were reduced to wliitefish and bread. It was ut- 
terly impossible to get anything from Saginaw, by land, and 
the writer having people at his place (Ossiueke. } to care for, 
could render but little assist-auce. The people bore their pri- 
vations with remarkable foititude. All remained at their work, 
as though they had plenty, until in March, when they were re- 
lieved by the appearance of Mr. Lockwood's schooner, the J. S. 
Minor. This visit from "General Scarcity" was repeated for 
several years, but only once succeeded in driving any one away. 
This shortage of provisions was occasioned, not so much by the 
inability or unwillingness of the proprietor to furnish the sup- 
plies, as by the incalculable increase of population, outside of 
those employed by the proprietors. Every year the supplies 
were largely increased, but the increase of consumers was still 
in advance of the supplies, and it was not until outside parties 
began to bring in provisions that the defect was remedied. 

The following letter, from E. K. Potter to the writer, and 
dated June 2d, 1876, with liberty to use. graphically and hu- 
morously characterizes the events at that tima He says: 

"In the fall of 1858, Lockwood &, Minor inaugurated the 
first lumber operations on the Thunder Bay river. Contracts 
were let to Archibald and Murray, and Alvio Cole. It being 

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8d improvements. 

eomething new to provide a supply o£ everything for six months, 
in a country as new and undeveloped as this was, it is not to bft 
wondered at that the supplies run short long before spring, and 
by the first of Febniary, 1859, that 'General Scarcity,' you 
spoke of, was here in full drese uniform. 1 was iu the lumber 
camp that winter, and with sorrow beheld the last piece of pork 
hung up by a string, over the center of a rude table, as a re- 
minder of happy by-gone days of peace and plenty. Mr. 
Whitefish stepped in and took the place of honor which had 
been occupied hy Hog, and held the b^lt^i"^^ t)f power from 
that time until the IGth of March. Mr. J. K. Loc'kwood being 
informed of our sad state, had his good schooner, the J. S. 
Minor, fitted out and started for Alpena, or Fremont, as it was 
then called at that time, with pork, beef, sugar, etc., and she 
arrived as above stated, on the 16th of March, and to all ap- 
pearances, it was just as cold and winter-like as at any time 
during the winter. We all felt rejoiced to hear the news in 
camp, that the Minor ha<l arrived with provisions, and we all 
sung Mr. Lockwood'e praise, as many a poor man and his fam- 
ily have had occasion to do since; and I will here say to Mr. 
Lockwood, more than to any other man, belongs the credit of 
starting and keeping in motion the then small lumbering oper- 
ations which gave employment to the few who were here, and 
thus securing the necessaries of life until better times' should 
change the then discouraging situation of atfairs, it being right 
after the dreadful panic of 1857, which will be remembered by 
all, as the hardest times this country had seen for fifty years.i 
Messrs. Lockwood & Minor built the so-called 'Island Mill,' in 
1860, which was the principal means of support for this then 
small and poor village, for three or four years. One pair of 
horses did the log hauling for the mill in the summer, and the 
lumber woods was the present site of Alpena. Down timber 
and burnt timber, and in faef^e very thing that would make a 
piece 6x6, was hauled to the little mill, and squared, and the 

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block ends cut off, and shipped to Cleveland, aud pork, flour, 
tea, sugar, etc., brought back iu return, and thus, from year to 
year, the 'log' was kept rolling, until to-day we have, from lihis 
small beginning, which has been so imperfectly described, a 
city of nearly, if not quite, five thousand inhabitants, an honor 
to the founders, who, while striving to advance its interests and 
that of its inhabitants, in all proper ways, have not, by selfish- 
ness, grown rich in this world's goods, but they have the satis- 
faction of knowing that they helped their fellow man. 
"Yours respectfully, 
'•Sigued, E, K. POTTER." 

The writer would here suggest, that those who have come to 
Alpena, of later date, who cannot do a dny's work for the city 
or county, or even for the celtsbration of the "Glorious Fourth," 
■without being paid for it; who came here after a town was made 
for them, by the old pioneers, aud when the coffers of the treas- 
ury were well filled; who never underwent any hardships or 
expense for the city or county, should well remember, that 
many privations had to be endured, and many days' labor per- 
formed for the city and county, without pay, by the proprietors 
and first settlers, ere a town was built up for their reception ; 
and the men who were^wise, prudent and persevering enough 
to build up and govern the county, until it had grown to opu- 
lence and influence, should be allowed at least a complimentary . 
voice in making the laws, and not considered over-selfish if 
they wish to have a "hand share" in the spoils, when any are 

Mr. Fletcher and the firm of Lockwood & Minor having fail- 
ed to build the two water raills referred to, were anxious to 
have their logs manufactured into lumber, and gave suflficient 
inducement to Messrs. Obed Smith and Harman Chamberlain, of 
St. Clair county, to determine them to erect a steam sawmill 
at Fremont; and in the spring of 1839, they commenced the 

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work of building the first steam sawmill in Alpena county. 
They pushed forward the work with vigor, and in August or 
Heptember of the same year they sawed the first boards. This 
was an important, and an encouraging event. All before 
had been failure, disappointment and expense, without any ad- 
equate returns. Now the mill would give employment to the 
people, and the proceeds would furnish the means to purchase 
the necessaries of life. The first work df>ne by this mill, was 
to cut the logs belonging to the firm of Lockwood & Minor.' 
This occupied the balance of the season of 1859, and a part of 

In the summer of 1859, Mr. J. K. Bingham came to Fre- 
mont. He brought with him, what was then considered a large 
stock of merchandise. He landed his goods on the north side 
of the river, (the reason will be given in the chapter on tem- 
perance, ) and proceeded at once to erect a stoi'e, on Dock street ; 
and in a few weeks a second store was added to the village. 
He then commenced the erection of a public house, near his 
store, on Dock street, and some time in September, the first 
hotel in Fremont was finished and opened to the public. 

In the summer of 1860, John Trowbridge & Eros, leased the 
Smith & Chamberlain mill. They also purchased Mr. Fletch- 
er's logs, as they were then situated in the river. They thought 
1bey could get better sawyei-g in the State of Pennsylvania, than 
they could in Michigan, and there they engaged Mr, George 
Bundy, to come with a crew of men, and saw their lumber. 
When Mr. Bundy came with his men, to saw the logs, behold! 
the logs were all fast on the "Big Rapids," and nothing less 
than a big flood would get them off. Trowbridge & Bros, 
then procured a charter from the Board of Supervisors, to build 
a dam across Thunder Bay river, in section 1, in township 31 
north, of range 7 east, for the purposes of flooding and manufac- 
turing. Then they proceeded to make the dam, and in Septem- 
ber or October it was ready for the first flood. A few of the 

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logs reached tbe mill that tall, and the balance in the spring, 
and were sawed during the season of 1861. All the lumber 
sawed from these logs, was made into one raft, and towed 
to Chicago. It reached that place without much, if any, in- 
jury, and was the first and last raft of sawed lumber taken from 
Thunder Bay river. At this time, a bitter feeling existed be- 
tween John Trowbridge & Bros, and the proprietors of Fre- 
mont, growing out of an affair that took place in 1858 and 1859. 
In Thunder Bay river was a middle ground, covered with wa- 
ter, except in low stages of the river. The Trowbridge Bros, 
claimed that this middle ground was an island, unsurveyed, and 
consequently belonged to the United States. The proprietors 
of Fremont claimed that it was a middle ground, and a part of 
the river, and the right to it was purchased with the adjacent 
lands. On this middle ground, the Trowbridge Bros, built a 
board shauty, to hold it by pre-emption, and the proprietors of 
Fremont, or some of their representatives, pulled it down. This 
was repeated two or three times, and the Trowbridge Bros., 
finding they could not hold it in that way, resolved to have the 
disputed "middle ground" surveyed by a United States Deputy 
Surveyor, as an island. In order to do this, it was necessary 
to bring into this survey, certain other unsurveyed islands 
in Thunder Bay and vicinity. These islands the writer, a 
short time prior to this, had been authorized by the Surveyor 
General to survey. By false representations, the oi'der to the 
writer to survey the islands, was revoked by the Surveyor Gen- 
eral, and a Deputy Surveyor sent on to make the survey. Af- 
ter the surveyor's report was sent to Washington, and a strong 
remonstrance was sent from the proprietors of Fremont, the 
writer sent a detailed account of the whole transaction to the 
Surveyor General, and nothing since has been heard from the 
survey, And the islands remain as they then were, and the pi'o- 
prietors of Fremont were victorious. 

In 1800, Loekwood & Minor, finding the Smith & Chamber- 

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lain mill was in the hands of John Trowbridge <fe Bros., and 
operated by them, foreign to the interests of Fremont, resolved 
upon bnilding a steam sawmill on the disputed "middle ground." 
They commenced the work accordingly,' some time in July, and 
pushed it with such vigor, that in six weeks from the time they 
sti-uck the first blow, they were cutting lumber with one six- 
feet circular saw. This was called the "Island Mil!," because it 
was situated upon the disputed island. The importance of this 
mill is given in Mr. Potter's letter, to which the reader is re- 

iSome time in 1859, Mr. Hilliard Broadwell came to Fremont. 
He came for the purpose of locating a site for a water mill. 
He was very conservative in his principles, firm in his own 
opinions, and familiar with water sawmills in the "old way," 
and nothing would do him but a water sawmill. He selected 
a site on the long rapids, and in the spring of 1860, commenc- 
ed to erect a mill dam across Thunder Bay river, on section 7, 
in township 31 north, of range 8 east, which was iinished in 
July or August of the same season. He then erected a saw- 
mill, on the east bank of the river, having two upright sashes, 
carrying two saws each. The Inmber was taken to Trowbridge' 
Point, on a tram railway, and shipped. This mill wag operat- 
ed a few years by Mr. Broadwell, but was found to be too prim- 
itive to be profitable, or compete with later improvements in 
milling, and was abandoned, and is now one, of the old things 
of Alpena county, 

A large portion of the improvements made in 1861, consist- 
ed in finishing up buildings, clearing the ground around them, 
making fences, etc. Some short sidewalks were made this 
year. From 1858 to 1862, a number of dwellings had been 
erected, and among the most noted were: One by J. S, Irwin, 
a cottage, between River and Minor streets, and then "way up 
in the woods"; one built by A. F. Fletcher, on the corner of 
Water and Second streets, a two story building, and for a long 

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time the best dwelling in the village. It was occupied for a 
time, in 1801 and 1862, by Mr. Leroy Bundy. as a hotel, for 
the best viaitors to AI[.ena. Mr. Bnndy was Postmaster for a 
short time, and was Deputy County Clerk in 1801 and 1862. 
John Cole built a large dwelling near the corner of Water and 
First streets, and Samuel Boggs built a cottage on River and 
Second streets, John W. Glennie built a two story' dwelling 
ou the corner of Chisholm and First streets; and AVilliam E. 
Jones built a cottage on the corner of First and River streets. 
David Plough built a cottage on First and River streets; Mar- 
tin Mintoo, a cottage on the northeast corner of River and Sec- 
ond streets; and on the opposite corner Oliver T. B. Williams 
erected a large dwelling, which was destroyed by fire before it 
was entirely finished. Daniel Carter lived on Water street un- 
til 1859 or 1800, when he erected a large dwelling on Chisholm 
street, qiid moved into it, from Water street, the same year. 
At his house on Water street, was held the first election. 

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the first session of the Board of Supervisors, the first session 
of a court. It was made the first postofEce, the first boarding 
house, and for a long time the hospital, where all the sick and 
wounded, who had no home in the village, were taken and cared 
for by Mrs. Carter, who was the only physician in the coun- 
ty, and she did good service, as many have f^ood reason to re- 

In 1862, Lockwood & Minor commenced to build another 
steam sawmill, on the east side of River street, between Sixth 
and Seventh streets. They had got the frame up, when the 
fire fi-om the woods, which was near, spread into and through 
where the town now is, — 1876,— by a strong wind, burning the 
mill frame, together with a number of dwellings, and destroy- 
ing a large quantity of rubbish. This so happened on the 
fourth day of July, and admonished the people, more than an 
oration, to clear away the timber around their dwellings. The 
mill frame was soon replaced, and in October the mill was com- 
pleted, running one six-feet circular and a siding mill, This 
was known as the "Home Mill." 

In 1861, Samuel E. Hitchcock, familiarly known among his 
friends as "The Deacon," came with his family to reside in Fre- 
mont; and in 1862, erected a fine dwelling on Chisholm street, 
near the bay. He had bis lands surveyed, and made them an 
addition to the village of Fremont. In pursuance of an agree- 
ment with the Board of Snpervisors, "The Deacon," in 1863, 
erected a large and commodious building, on the corner of Wash- 
ington avenne and Chisholm street, and finished it, for county 
ofSces, and a room for holding the courts; and also for holding 
church and Sabbath school. It was known as "The Deacon's 
Court House." As soon as it was finished, and accepted by the 
Board of Supervisors, a lease was made for five years, and 
longer if the county of Alpena desired, with a provision that 
the court room might be used on the Sabbath, for the purpose 
of holding church and Sabbath school. 

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The year 18(33 was not remarkable for the number of new 
buildings erected, but mucli improvements were made in finisli- 
ing and enlarging those already erected, in clearing grounds. 
making fences, and improving the streets with ditches, sawdust 
and sidewalks; so that, in 18G4, the little village began to as- 
sume the appearance of civilization. 

The year 1864 is remarkable in the history of Alpena coun- 
ty, as the one from which it can date the commencement of its 
rapid growth and prosperity. "General Scarcity" was su- 
perseded by "Genera! Plenty," and has held command ever 

Although a fierce and bloo<Jy war had been and was then 
raging in the southern States, and General Grant was fighting 
his way from the Kapidan to Richmond, and General Sher- 
man was advancing step by step from Chattanooga to Atlanta, 
and a heavy draft, for soldiers and revenue, had been made on 
the northern States, yet they were prosperous in their busi- 
ness relations, and rapidly increasing in material wealth. This 
was particularly so with Alpena. Greenbacks were first issued 
in 1862, and in 1861 began to be frequently seen in Alpena. 
The supply of pitch and tar from the southern States, and arti- 
cles manufactured there, being cut off by the blockade, brought 
norway pine into demand, and tar and turpentine reached fabu- 
lous prices. This brought a large number of people to Alpena, 
to look for norway pine to manufacture into timber and lumber, 
and the norway pine stumps to manufacture into tar and tur- 
pentine. Lester, Long & Co. built a steam sawmill, on the east 
side of Kiver street, bwtweeu Fifth and Sixth streets. This 
mill run one large circular saw and lath mill — -capacity about 
two million feet of lumber and one million pieces of lath, and 
employed about twenty men. They also built a boarding house 
near the mill. This year, the "Home Mill," belonging to Lock- 
wood & Minor, was destroyed by fire, involving a heavy loss to 
them. It was re-built the same season, and now — 1876— be- 

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longs to Bewick, Oomstock & Co. This year— 1864 — the Thun- 
der Bay Dam Company's dam was fiuiahc-d, and a large wa- 
ter mill built, on the east side of the river, by John Oldfield. 
It run one large circular saw, one rauley, with edgers, slab 
saws and latii machines. It employed about forty men. Mr. 
Oldfield built, in connection with his mill, a large boarding 
house, barn, and a few small dwellings. Mr. Bowen built a 
storehouse and dock, on tiie south side of Dock street. Messrs. 
Doer & Fairchild erected a manufactory for making tar and 
turpentine from norway pine stumps, and many hundreds, of 
these were made into tar, turpentine and charcoal. They sold 
their interest to Martin Minton, who, in 18fio, built another 
factory, at Ossinelte. This was a lucrative business as long as 
the war lasted, but when the war ended, prices of tar and tur- 
pentine soon dropped so low that there was no profit to the 
manufacturer, and it ceased to be an industry in Alpena county. 
This year — 1864 — (he first bridge was built across Thunder 
Bay river, (For particulars see chapter on roads.) 

In 1865, AViiliam Jenney and Elisha Harrington built a 
largo steam sawmill, on the east side of Kiver sti'eet, and nortli 
of Fourth street. This was, when erected, and is, in 187fi, the 
largest mill in Alpena. They run one gang, one muley saw, 
and two large circular saws, with lath machines, edgers, slab 
saws, etc. They also erected, near their mill, a large boarding 
house, and store, and a few dwellings. This property changed 
hands, and in 1876 belonged to Hilliard, Churchill & Co. In 
1863, the Smith & Chamberlain mill was destroyed by fire, 
which was strongly suspected to have been the work of an in- 
cendiary. This year — 1865 — it was re-built, on the site of the 
burned one. It run one gang, one muley saw, one large circu- 
lar saw, and lath mill. Has a capacity to cut about six million 
feet of lumber, and about one and a half million pieces of lath 
per season. The property, in 1876, belongs to Folkerts & Bnt- 
terfield. The First Congregational Society of Alpena, com- 

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meiiced this year — 1865 — tti6 erection o£ a large, and beautiful 
c'liurch, on the north sitle of Hecond street. It is a wooden 
structure, and cost about 86,000— finished in 1808 — and is, in 
1876, the largest and best church in the city. This year — 
1885 — two large hotels were being built; one on the corner of 
Fletcher and Dock streets, by J. R. Beach, and called the Un- 
ion Star Hotel, and tbfl othei' on the west side of Chisholm 
street, by Julius Potvin, and known as the Alpena House. 
They were finished in a style to accommodate the traveling 
public, and were expected to supply a need long felt by the cit- 
izens of the village. 

In 180f), E. P. Campbell & Oo., built what is known as the 
Campbell & Potter mill. It is located one and a half miles 
due west from the mouth of Thunder Bay river, and on its most 
souther" beud. A tram railway was made from the mill to the 
bay, a little over a mile in length. A large and commodious 
dock was built out in the bay, for the purpose of piling ami 
shipping lumber, and landing goods. The mil! run one muley 
saw and two large circular saws, and a lath mill— had a capaci- 
ty to cut six million feet of lumber, and a million and a half 
pieces of lath per season. At or about this time, G. S. Lester, 
under the firm name of C. Thompson & Co., erected a large 
shingle mill, a short distance north and east of the Campbell & 
Potter mill, using the tram road and dock of E. P. Campbell & 
Co. for shipping purposes. It run a rotary machine and one 
Chicago, and had a capacity to cut about ten million shingles 
during the season. These very important improvements were 
soon followed by others, as a matter of necessity. The two 
mills would give employment to about fifty men, who must 
board near their work; and being separated then from Alpena, 
by a mile and a half of a dense tamarack swamp, it became nec- 
essary to erect suitable buildings for their accommodation ; and 
a cluster of dwellings and other buildings were soon erected 
near the mills, and this cluster of buildings was known as 

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Campbell ville. The nest necessity that presented itself, was a 
roa<l on the section iine, and direct between the t7/opl(ices; 
and the first step to be taken in that direction, was to drain the 
swampa Two large ditches were made, one near and parallel 
to the tramway, and the othernearand parallel with the section 
line, to the bay. These ditches drained a large portion of the 
surface water, and enabled the people to open a road for pedes- 
trians, but it was some time before teams could travel over it, 
during the spring and fall. This year — 1806— two shingle 
mills were built; one on the north side of the river, near the 
bay, by Thomas Robinson, who introduced the first planing 
machine into Alpena. This was a great desideratum. Pi-ior 
to this, all lumber had to be dressed by hand, or brought from 
Detroit, and as mechanics' wages were from three to five dollars 
per day, and board, it made building very expensive. The 
other shingle mill was built by Hopper & Davis, on the north 
side of the river, and west of Chisholm street. Both of these 
were burned, the former in June, 1SG7, and the latter is un- 
known to the writer. L. M. Mason & Co. completed the water 
mill, commenced by Lockwood & Minor in 1858, the frame of 
which was made at that time, by John (Jole. This mill is lo- 
cated on the west side of the dam, and runs one muley saw, two 
shingle machines, and a lath mill. Although Alpena had as few 
crimes to punish, perhaps, as any county in the State, of its 
age and population, yet it was necessary that it should have a 
place where disorderly persons conld go and be taken care of. 
In 1864 or ISfio, the Board of Snpervisors made a contract for 
clearing Jessie Square, and erecting a suitable building for n 
jail. It was built on Chisholm street, and made of two-inch 
plank, doubled, and fastened together with spikes driven close 
together. It had three or four cells, well made, and strong ; 
two light rooms for prisoners, and ample rooms for turnkey and 
family. Attached to this was a woodshed and stable. It was 
painted the Scotchman's "muckle dun" color, and made a very 

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uuimtjosiiiy appearance. In 1866, three church edifices were 
in conetructioii — Catholic, on Chisholm street; Congregational, 
on Second street, and Episcopal, on Washington avenue. These 
will be noticed in another chapter. The increase of population, 
the erection of dwellings, public buildings and places for doing 
business, depended largely on the enlargement of the improve- 
ments made for the manufacture of lumber, aud followed them 
as rapidly as could be expected. Most of the buildings were 
substantial structures, either as business places or dwellings; 
and many of the residences were spacious, tastefully made and 
commodious. At this time, a large portion of the business of 
the village was transacted on Water street, and the leading 
mercantile firms were as follows: Benjamin C. Hardwick, on 
Water street, dealer in dry goods, groceries, clothing, boots 
and shoes, crockery, hardware, etc. L. M. Mason & Co., mer- 
chants and lumber dealers; store on Water street; miscellane- 
ous merchandise. A. AV. Comstoc-k & Co., on Second street, 
near the bridge, carried a fine assortment of miscellaueoua 
goods. A. R Fletcher & Co., on Water street, dry goods, 
ready made clothing, boots, shoes' etc. Mason, Doty, Luce <fe 
Co., lumbermen and merchants; store on Fletcher street; car- 
ried a large assortment of miscellaneous merchandise. Hopper, 
Davis & Co., dealers in dry goods, groceries, clocks, jewelry, 
etc., on the west side of Water street Mason, Lester & Co., 
lumbermen and merchants; store on AVater street; a large as- 
sortment of miscellaneous merchandise. Bolton & McRae, 
dealers in choice groceries, provisions and liquors, on the cor- 
ner of Dock and Fletcher streets. William P. Maiden, the 
■ first physician and surgeon in Alpena, opened the first drug 
store, on the corner of Second and River streets, and carried a 
fine assortment of goods in his line. F. N. Barlow and J. H. 
Noxen, under the firm name of Barlow & Nosen, introduced the 
first hardware store in Alpena, on the corner of Second and 
Kiver streets; carried a fine assortment of hardware, iron, 

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stoves and tinware. Martin H. Miuton and John Creightoii, 
manufacture re of and dealers in boots and shoes, and harness, 
on Second street, Wm. West, shoemaker and dealer in boots 
and shoes, on Second street. H. Hyatt, this year — 18G6— 
built the first bakery, and commenced the business of baking. 
It was known as the Eagle Bakei-y, He also erected a build- 
ing and opened a meat market, near his bakery, on Water street. 
Although both of these improvements were much needed and 
duly appreciated by the people, yet the village was not large 
enough to make the business very lucrative. The upper rooms 
of this building were nicely fitted up for a Masonic hall, and 
this was the first one occupied by the Masonic fraternity in Al- 
pena. At the door of this hall, many excellent citizens knock- 
ed and were admitted, and brought from darkness to light, and 
presented with the tools and instructions whereby they could 
work out the problems of life, on the square and compasses, 
■s^ith temperance, fortitude, prudence and justice, and to travel 
on the level of time, toward that Divine Architect AVho has 
made all things well, and AVho uses neither trestle-board or 
patterns, and never made a mistake. Besides the business 
places already mentioned, Alpena had a number of mechanical 
establishments, great and small, five public houses, only two of 
which could be honored with the name of "hotel." These were 
the Union Star Hotel, owned and kept by J. R. Beach, and the 
Alpena House, owned and kept by Julius Potviu, Both houses 
were well managed, and were rivals for business ; were favorites 
with the public, and a satisfactiou to the business men of the 
place. Alpena also possessed one or two billiard rooms, and a 
number of drinking places. We will now leave the village for 
a time, to look after the surroundings. 

In 1862, John Trowbridge & Bros, lumbered a large quanti- 
ty of short logs, and put them into the North Branch of Thun- 
der Bay river; and the same season built a small shingle mill 
propelled by water, near the dam, in section 1, town 31 north, 

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of range 8 east, and a boarding house near the same. In 1863, 
the Trowbridge Bros, lumbered long timber, from section 16, 
town 31 north, of raugo 8 east, and in the flutumn of the same 
3'ear, undertook to raft it to market. They proceeded to make 
cribs of the long timber, anfl load them with short logs. When 
the raft was nearly finished, and which contained about two and a 
half million feet of lumber, a furious storm arose, which lasted 
long enough to tear the raft to pieces, and scatter the timber 
in every conceivable disorder along the shore of the bay. They 
then built a small steam sawmill, near the first point east of 
Alpena, aud about two miles distant, and subsequently known 
as Trowbridge Point. Here they cleared a email piece of 
ground, made a dock, and erected a number of buildings. They 
spent the season of 1SG4 in removing the logs from the bay 
shore to the mill, and sawing them, and which cost them nearly 
as much as the logs were worth, resulting in a large loss to the 
parties. In 1805 and 1806, Trowbridge Bros, built a large 
water mill, at the dam, for sawing lumber, and made a tram 
railway from the mill to their dock at the point, and being about 
seven miles in length. The mill rnu one rauley saw, one sis- 
feet circular saw, one shingle machine, and a lath machine. 
Up to this time, little or no attention had been paid to tilling 
the soil. Indeed, it was almost the universal belief that the 
land was too poor, and the climate too arctic to produce good 
crops, and that it never could be a good farming country. 

In an article published in the Pioneer, in November, 1806. 
headed "Our Prospects," and written over the signature of 
"Don Pedro," is the following: "The question is this; you 
have all heard it, so do not look for anything new. What is 
there to sustain Alpena when the lumbering is done with, bat 
farming? and will that pay for the undertaking, or, in other 
words, reward the laborer? Reader, this is a question which 
comes home to the bosom of all who have an interest in the fu- 
turity of Alpena; and it is one that should be agitated aud 

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pushed forward for one sole and particular reason ; that is, ihe 
lumbering must surely come io an end, aud then there must be 
some other rRsource to fall back upon, or Alpena will then soon 
sink into decay, and the tenements now so rapidly going up, 
will become but stables for the wandering kine. Fruits will 
not generally become a source from which we shall ever reap 
much benefit, although Prof. Winchell has even gone so far in 
his geological statements as to declare that the best fruit coun- 
try in Michigan is from this latitude, extending to the Straits. 
But let that be as it may, there is no one who will deuy the 
fact that this is a first class grazing country." Then, after 
admonishing the people to raise hay and stock, he says: "All 
kinds of roots, so far as I can ascertain, grow in large quanti- 
ties and of good qnality. The cereals do quite well, but not 
enough so to warrant a cultivation of them." The writer has 
answered the same question many times, by stating what he 
now writes, that there is good farming lands enough in the 
county to support Alpena, when the pine timber is exhausted; 
but the question need not fret the questioner, for he will be in 
his grave long before lumbering ceases to be an industry of 
Alpena, It was truly refreshing to many, at that time, to learn 
that the country was not totally barren, and absolutely worth- 
less, when stripped of its pine timber, and that the timber 
would last longer than one decade; and hence the importance 
of Don Pedro's discovery and announcement, "that this is a 
first class grazing country." The writer cultivated some land, 
at Devil river, and raised good crops; but this was attributed 
to its peculiar situation, the abundance of manure, and the ex- 
tra care and cultivation. 

In 1861 or 18C2, Alexander Archibald and Thomas Murray 
purchased a piece of land, on the rapids, below Broadwell's 
mill, of EUsha Taylor, of Detroit; built a house and barn, and 
moved his family there; cleared four or five acres of land, 
and sowed it with oata and grass. They harvested a very good 

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crop, anil were satisfied with tlicir experiment, and woultl have 
proceeded to make the first farm in tlie comity, had not the 
property changed into the hands of Mr. Broadwell, with whom 
they were at enmity, and thej' abandoned the contract and the 
place, Mr. Broadwell also cleared and cultivated with success, 
a few acres near his mill. 

In 18G0 or 1801, a man known by the name o£ Antwiue, 
cleared a few acres of land and tilled it, at the confluence of the 
North Branch with the main river, and about the same time, G. 
N. Fletcher selected a piece of land, in section 29 or 30, town 
31 north, of range 7 east, and had from ten to fifteen acres 
cleared. He sold or rented the same to John King, who mov- 
ed on to it with his family, and stayed two or three years. 
King raised large quantities of potatoes and bagas. and sold 
them by the quantity, or sleigli load. This was the first pro- 
duce raised in the county, and sold by the quantity. This 
seems to be all that was done in the farming line, up to and in- 
cluding I860, In the future of this chapter, it will be impos- 
sible to follow in detail the rapid growth of the village; and I 
shall notice, only in a general way, those that do not introtluce 
some new industry, or necessarily promote other improvements. 

In 1807, the business men o£ Alpena began to feel their 
financial strtngth, and the want of larger facilities tor transact- 
ing their business. Their harbor deficient, their roads bad, 
their docks, warehouses and business places too small. A 
"Harbor Improvement Company" had been organized, and con- 
siderable work had been done in the way of building piers and 
dredging, yet the water on the bar was too shallow to admit 
large vessels and steamers, and the com[«iny resolved to extend 
the piers into twelve feet of water, during the winter of 1867 
and 1868; and this was expected to remove the harbor difficul- 
ty. The only i-oads, at this time, connecting Alpena "with the 
rest of the world," during thi winter season, was the East Sag- 
inaw and Au Sable Eiver, and the Duncan, Alpena and Au Sa- 

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ble River State roads. These were passable for teams, only 
duiTiig the season of frost and snow, and then they were very 
rough and uncertain. Through their Kepreaentative, tbeHou. 
J. K. Lockwood, the people obtained an additional grant of 
swamp lands, by the Legislature, for the further improvement 
of said roads, and to build a bridge across the Au Sable river, 
the details of which will be found in the chapter on eommiini- 
cation. No new mills were built in the viliage during the year 
1867, but the niechanic's ax, hammer and saw were heard in 
every direction, finishing up and enlarging mills, docks, ware- 
houses, hotels and dwellings commenced the last season, and 
erecting new dwellings and places for doing business. Mason, 
Doty &. Co. made a large extension to their dock, and Jenney & 
Harrington made valuable improvements in theirs. Messrs. 
Bolton & McRae erected a large and substantial building, on 
the corner of Dock and Fletcher streets, for a grocery and pro- 
vision store. A two story building was finished, on Second 
street, opposite the drug store, to be occupied by John Creigh- 
ton, for a shoe shop. A large hotel, on Second street, to be 
known as the Burrell House, was in process of construction. It 
was finished and opened as a public house, in August, 1871, 
with considerable formality. Judge Sutherland, Member of Con- 
gress, the Hon. D. May, Attorney General, Hon. J. K. Lock- 
wood, and city officials, being present, and Mr. McLain being 
proprietor. Many dwellings might be mentioned, but the fol- 
lowing must suffice: Josiah Frink, a fine dwelling, on Maine 
avenue, near Deacon Hitchcock's; S. Boggs, a dwelling, and J. 
W. Lane, a dwelling, on Second street. This year^l867 — 
David D. Oliver built a large steam sawmill, at Ossineke. This 
mill was one hundred and twenty feet long, and forty feet wide, 
and designed to run one sis-feet circular saw, for cutting long 
timber oi- cants, as desired, and a gang so arranged as to cut 
round logs or cants. It was intended to work eacrh side of the 
mill independent of the other, or together, as required, and for 

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that purpose two st'tB of machinery were neeessdry. Oliver not 
being able to finish the mU\ with a gang, and finding that the 
engine was able to riui two lavgf circular saws, put a circular 
in place of the gang, which did good work. Subsequently, the 
pi-operty went into the hands of Cunningham, Robinson, Haines 
& Co. They not knowing the design of Oliver, put into the 
mill the gang, aiid retained the two circular saws, thereby 
ei-owding the mill with saws, which tbe stream was not able to 
supply with logs. 

The year 18G8 gave a new impulse to mill building. A 
young man of good bneineBB capacity, stern integi-ity, and per- 
severing iuduslry, came from the State of Ohio, to Alpena, and 
purchased a site for a steam sawmill, on the north side of the 
river, next to the bay. Backed by a father who was a man of 
means, and who declared that "Frank was a good boy," he com- 
menced the erection of a milt, near the end of the north pier, 
and then out in the bay. This was an undertaking of consid- 
erable magnitude, and was a very important improvement to 
Alpena. It extended the limits of the town, and gave a belter 
appeai'auce to its front. It would give permanency to that side 
of the pier, as the offal from the mill would soon fill in and 
about the pier, and make it solid and free from the attacks of 
the waves from the bay. The pier would be an advantage to 
the mill, for with a very little modification and expense, it could 
be used as a dock for piling and shipping Jumber. This mill 
was commenced in 1808, and finished in 18GS), It mn one 
large circular saw and one muley saw, and a lath mill. It had 
a capacity to cut about five million feet of lumber per season, 
and about eight hundred thousand pieces of lath. It employed 
about twenty-four men, and is known as the Gilchrist mill. A 
lumber and shingle mill combined, was built this year — 1868 
— -on the north side of the river, and named the Chamberlain 
mill, by A. F. Fletcher & Co. It run one large circular saw, 
which is capable of cutting two million feet o£ lumber per sea- 

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son, besides doin^ the necessary work for the sliiiigle ma(;hine. 
For the manufacture of shingles, it run one Valentine double 
cutter, one Evarts single cutter, and one hand machine. It 
also run a lath mill, edgers, slab saw, and cant slasher. Its 
capacity for shingles is about twelve millions per season, and 
five hundred thousand pieces of lath. The manner of working 
up the timber in this mill is very economical. The logs are 
first taken to the circular saws, and all the upper qualities of 
lumber taken off. The balance of the logs are cut into cants of 
proper size for shingle bolts, and then passed to the cant slasher 
and cut into blocks for the shingle machines. The only objec- 
tion to cutting timber in this way, is, that some of the shingles 
are cut with the grain of the wood, instead of being cut across 
it. The mill employs about forty person.^, men and boys. The 
company also built a large dock for piHng and shipping their 
products. Bewick, Comstock & Co. commenced to build a 
shingle mill and dock, on the, south side of the river, above 
Second street. It was not finished until 18R9, It run one 
Valentine double cutter, and one Evarts single cutter. The 
logs are cut into blocks with a drag saw. The daily cut of this 
mill is about seventy thousand, and it gives employment to 
about twenty persons. A small shingle mill was built in 1867 
or 1868, by Hagerty & Co., on the bay shore, near Campbell & 
Potter's dock. It ruu one single cutting machine, with a ca- 
pacity to cut two or three million shingles per season, and em- 
ployed eight persons, A. H. Doty built a shingle mill, on the 
north side of the river. It run two single cutting machines, 
with a capacity to cut about six million shingles per season, 
and gave employment to thirteen persons. At what date this 
mill was built, the writer is not able to give. In regard to the 
first shingle mill erected in Alpena, the writer has passed over 
until now, not being able to get the particulars. J. 9. Minor, 
under date of Marcji 10th, 1878, to the writer says: "The first 
shingle mill was built by G. S. Lester; run a Valentine 

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machine; twenty men; twelve million ; and since destroyed." 
The rapid increase of mills caused a corresponding increase 
in the cutting of timber. In the spring the river was packed 
with logs for miles, so that those having logs in the rear would 
have to wait for them until the logs in the front had been mov- 
ed. Every one having logs to drive, in the spring, was anxious 
to get in ahead on the drive of logs. This sometimes caused 
contention and sti'ife. Some mills were compelled to be idle in 
the spring, od account of the jam of logs in the river, unless 
logs were wintered over in their booms; and it became neces- 
sary that some arrangement should be had whereby logs could 
be delivered at the different mills, during the summer season- 
as they were needed. On the 25th of April, 1868, a number 
of citizens of Alpena met at the office of L. M. Mason & Co., 
and organized the Thunder Bay Kiver Boom Co. The capital 
stock of the company was $10,000, in one hundred shares of 
$100 each. Officers were elected as follows: President, B. F. 
Luce ; Secretary and Treasurer, S. Mitcbel Noxen ; Directors, 
B. F. Luce. P. M. Johnson, Wm. H. Potter, E. Harrington, and 
8. Mitchel Noxen. 

If civilization means a great number of wants and their sup- 
ply, then Alpena had reached a high state of civilization, for 
her v/ants were many, and as soon as one was satisfied, another 
stood ready to claim attention. Prior to 1867, all machinery 
and foundry work for the mills at Alpena, was done at Detroit 
or Saginaw, and sometimes a small break caused a serious de- 
lay. A foundry and machine shop was very much desired by 
the mill owners, but this question stood in the way: Is there 
work enough to make it pay? David Crippen was the first 
man that undertook to answer the question. He was a prac- 
tical machinist, and by hard work and prompt attention to the 
wants of his customers, he has been able to answer the ques- 
tion in the affirmative. He came to Alpena in 1867, erected a 
foundry and machine shop, built up a trade, and made the busi- 

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neas a success. The visit of the "Eire King" will be noticed 
in the chapter on fires. 

A frnitfnl source of mortification and regret to the people of 
Alpena, was a deficiency in accommodations for visitors, and 
this led to the erection of the Fletcher House. This want was 
felt, more or less, from the time of the incipient village, to the 
opening of that house. To meet this desideratum, Samuel 
BoggB, in 1S67, commenced the erection of a large and commo- 
dious hotel, on the north side of Dock street, near the river. 
It was finished and opened in 1868, and known as the Huron 
House, and became a competitor for business, with the Star 
Hotel. Both of these houses i-un expresses to the boats, and 
the traveling public was pleased and satisfied. But this state 
of things lasted only until 1871, when both hotels were swept 
away by a fire, the details of which may be seen in the chapter 
on fires. 

In 1868, Dr. Wm. P. Maiden built a three story building, on 
the corner of Chishoim and Second streets. He designed the 
first story for a drug store, the second story for offices, and the 
third for a Masonic hall. The Alpena House, destroyed by fire 
January 1st, 1868, was re-buiit, on the site of the old one, in 
1868 and 1869. and will be noticed In the chapter on fires. 
The frame of the Union School hotise was raised in August, 
1868, the details of iwhich are given in the chapter on education. 
In 1865, the oil excitement reached Alpena, and in the Thun- 
der Bay Monitor of April 8th, we fiudthe following: 

"Notice.— The stockholders of the Alpena Oil Company will 
meet at'the Court House, on Friday evening, April 14th, at 7 
o'clock, to organize, and transact such other business as may 
lawfully come before them. 






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D. D. Oliver, of Ossineke, made this company a propositioiii 
that, if they would locate the well at Squaw Point, on lands 
belonging to him, he would contribute S1,000, and would deed 
the company five acres of land, provided they should find any- 
thing valuable. This proposition was accepted by the first 
stockholders, who agreed with the writer, that Alpena was too 
near the dip of the rock, or edge of the basin, to find much brine 
or oil. Subsequently, men became stockholders, who had more 
property interests in Alpena than knowledge of geology, and 
either thought or pretended to think, that oil could be found in 
Alpena as well as in any other place, and this divided ideas and 
interests delayed the operations of sinking a well until in Jan- 
uary, 18fi9, when new arrangements were made to feel into the 
"bowels of the earth," for oil, salt, or whatever might be of 
value. The first work in, putting up the derrick and necessary 
buildings was done in January. The location selected was near 
E. Harrington's mill. In March, 1869, Mr. Hagerty, who had 
ft contract for sinking the well, reported the lithological strne- 
tare for 04 J feet, as follows: 

1st. Various strata of sand, gravel, bowlders, 30 feet. 

2d. Limestone, 2 

3d. Quartz rock containing considerable copper ore, 18 
4th. Shale, 4 

5th. Soapstone, 3 J 

6th, Limestone, 7 

Total, 64^ feet. 

After this, but little attention was given to the structure or 
kind of rocks, but generally limestone, with some layers of 
«hale and soapstone. At 600 feet, a vein of mineral water was 
I'eached, which flowed with such force as to keep the borings 
clear, without pumping. The well was sunk to a depth of 
1,185 feet, and when the tubing was put in, in 1870, it was dis- 
covered that the drill had stopped in a solid rock of salt The 

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brine was very strong, but could not be obtained in paying 
quantities. It was supposftd by some that, by letting the water 
flow upon this bed o£ salt, it would soon dissolve and form a 
reservoir for brine, of sufficient size to establish a business in 
salt making. But this kind of rock does not dissolve as readily 
as manufactured salt, (chloride of sodium,) for, mixed with it 
is often sulphate of lime, (gypsum,") chloride of calcium, mag- 
nesium, etc., which renders the rock hard, and not easily dis- 
solved. The proprietors, G. N. Fletcher, Wm. Jenney and E. 
Harrington, being disappointed in regard to obtaining brine, 
turned their attention to the mineral water. Mr. Fletcher sub- 
mitted a quantity of the water to Dr. S. P. Duffield, a practical 
chemist, of Detroit, Mich., for a quantitive analysis, with the 
following result: 

Specific gravity, 1.012 


Bicarbonate of soda, 15.736 

Bicarbonate of lime, 55.136 

Bicarbonate of magnesia, 62.920 

Bicarbonate of iron, 1.840 

Sulphate of lime, 30.056 

Silica and aluminum, 3.088 

Chloride of sodium, 68.256 

Organic matter and loss, .928 


Total mineral constituents, 237.032 grains. 

Sulphurated hydrogen gas, 3,91 cubic inches. 

Carbonic aicd gas, a trace. 

Another well was bored by Mr. Hagerty, in 1874, ou the 
east side of Thunder Bay river. At 700 feet a vein of very 
soft water was struck, which flowed the full capacity of the well. 
At 950 feet a mineral vein was reached; and at 1,050 feet salt 
rock. It is somewhat remarkable, and to be regretted very 

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mucfi, that a minute and detailed record of the geological char- 
acter ot the several strata o£ rock was not made. It might 
have led to valuable results. 

The first hardware store was started by Barlow & Nosen, in 
1866. Mr. Noxen soon left the firm and J. J. Potter stepped 
into his place, and with Mr. Barlow built up a large trade. 
In March, 1869, Mr. Barlow retired from the business and E. 
K. Potter filled the vacancy. The firm soon was changed to 
Potter Bros. & Co., and so re -organised, the business was well 
managed and is now one of the largest mercantile establish- 
ments in Alpena. 

The same year, Mr. Barlow commenced to build a clapboard 
mill, on the south side of the liver, near the pier, for the pur- 
pose of cutting clapboards and door stuff. It run one clap- 
lx)ard machine and sapper. Subsequently, it was changed to a 
shingle mill, running one double and one single machine. 
Had a capacity to cut 100,000 shingles per day, and employed 
twenty-seven persons. It was owned in 1876 by Edward 
White, and valued at $8,000. 

In 1870, the people of Alpena had become exceedingly 
prosperous, in the general acceptation of the term in this coun- 
try — people are prosperous according to the accumulation 
of wealth, over and above paying their expense of living. To 
show how prosperous the people are, we have only to show 
their surrounding conditiorie and influences, and their accumu- 
lation and increase of pj'operty and population, and we can do 
this in no better way than to show the acts and statistical re- 
ports of the people themselves, or through their representa- 

The population of Alpena proper, in 1864, was 674, and in 
1870, according to the state census, was 2,756, an increase of 
459 inhabitants yearly. The vote cast in 1864 was 69, and 
that in 1870 was 519, a yearly increase of 75 votes. This 

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verifies the statement, before made, that Alpena dates its pros- 
perity and rapid growth from 1864. 

From its organization to 18G4, six years, it had accumula- 
ted ouly Gy voters, while from 18G4 to 1870, six years, it more 
than doubled that number each year. 

The valuation of property, as made by the Board of Super- 
visors, and as shown by the census, was made upon the towa 
of Alpena, which, in 1860, comprised the whole county. "When 
the towns of Ossineke and Corles were organized, in 1867, it 
materially changed its territory. Alpena was again metamor- 
phosed in 1871, by the organization of the city, and again 
changed by the organization of the towns of Wilson and Long 
Kapids. A large portion of the accumulation of wealth be- 
longed to the village of Alpena, and when connected with other 
territory and subject to such changes, the figures of the su- 
pervisors fail to express fairly the rates of increase of values 
in the village. 

In 1868, the equalization of the assessment rolls were as fol- 
lows : 

Alpena, $700,000.1)6 

Harrisville, 524,379.25 

Alcona, 230,013.02 

Ossineke, 137,061.89 

Unorganized territory, 020,503.37 

Total, $2,217,359.59 

In 1870, the several tax rolls were equalized at the following 

Alpena, $769,917.24 

Ossineke, 142,660.00 

Unorganized territory, 576,152.66 

Total, $1,488,729.90 

The two years above have been selected: First, to show 
the change in value by a change in territory, and second, to 
select two years in which no change had been made in Alpena 

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3 for the two 

territorj'. But this shows only the ratio of v 
years, is found to be $69,917.18. 

Ill July, 18(32, Congress enacted a law, imposing n tax of 
five per cent on all incomes over and above one thousand dol- 
lars net, and now, by giving a list of persons in Alpena, who 
paid an income tax in 1806 and in 1868, and the amounts on 
which they paid their tax, will better show their increase of 
wealth than any estimates made by the supervisors. 

The following is the income tax lists (exclusive of legal ex- 
emptions) for Alpena county, for the years 18G6 and 1868, as 
furnished by E. B. Chamberlain, assistant assessor, 15th di- 
vision, 6th district: 



Henry Bolton, 


Henry Bolton, 


Samuel Bogge, 


A. W. Comstock, 


Andrew W. Comstock 

. 300.00 

Wm. B. Comstock, 


Wm. B. Comslofk, 


James Cavanagh, 


John Campbell, 


Josiah Frink. 


James Cavanagh, 


A. F. Fletcher, 


Alexander H. Dotj, 


Thos. H. Hunt, 


Temple Emory, 


Elisha Harrington, 


Addison F. Fletcher, 


Jas. K. Loekwood, 


John W. Glennie, 


Benjamin F. Luce, 


Elisha Harrington, 


Donald Mcllae, 


Benj. C. Hardwick, 


Henry K. Morse, 


Thos. H. Hunt, 


8. Mitchell Noxen, 


Phineas M. Johnson, 


Charles Oldfield, 


Edward Saehpoll, 


James J. Potter, 


Benjamin P. Lnce, 


William H. Potter, 


Donald McKea, 


"William P. Maiden, 


William Norris, 


S. Mitcbel Noxen, 


John Oldfield, 


Chas. Oldfield, 


D. D. Oliver, 


William H. Potter, 


Edward K. Potter, 


It may not be uninteresting, to some of the readers of this 

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book, to show, iu this place, the various circumstances that 
conspired favorably for the growth of Alpena, and that which 
exercised the largest influence, was the then so called "de- 
preciated greenback." 

Most of the wealth of Alpena, in 1864, was in her immense 
forests of pino timber, and the accumulation of wealth by the 
people depended mostly upon the low price and easy purchase 
of those lands. For the purpose of settlement and drainap[e 
of the swamp lands, the Legislature, in 1859, passed a home- 
stead law, by which any settler or occupant of eighty acres of 
swamp lands, upon making application to the Commissioner of 
the Land Oflice, was entitled to a certificate of purchase, con- 
ditioned that the settler sliould live on the land continuously 
for five consecutive years; that within three months from the 
date of sucli certificate, the settler should file with the Commis- 
sioner of State Land Office, a certificate from the Supervisor of 
the township in which the laud is located, together with his 
own affidavit, that he is in actual possession and occupancy of 
such land; that he shall not cut or carry away any valuable 
timber, except upon lands cleared for cultivation- — complying 
with these provisions and proving the same at the expiration 
of the five years, he would be entitled to a deed of the land 
from the State of Michigan. 

In 1862, Congress also passed a homestead law, by which 
any person, male or female, being the head of a family, or a 
male twenty-one years of age, and a citizen of the United 
States, or had declared his intention to become a citizen, and 
who had always been faithful to the government, and by pay- 
ing a small register fee, was permitted to select and occupy one 
hundred and sixty acres of land, from any of the United States 
lands, subject to entry, at one dollar and twenty-five cents per 
acre, and that, by living on the land for five consecutive years, 
and making proof of this to the Eegister of the Land Office of 
the district, where the land belonged, was entitled to a patent 
of the laud from the United States, 

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In 1862, Congress established a Departmeut o£ Agriculture 
at Washington, D. C, and in 18G3 made a grant of laods to 
tile several states, to aid them in establishing an Agricultural 
College ill each state. Some of the states selected their landB, 
while others, being remote from the land districts, put their 
certificates on the market, and sold them for what they could 
get, being always less than one-half their cash purchasing value 
at the United States Land Office for lands. 

For the purpose of drainage and reclamation of the swamp 
lands, the Legislature, in 1859, made a law granting swamp 
lands to aid in making roads and bridges, and in 1861 appro- 
priated about four hundred thousand acres for that purpose. 
Subsequently a large portion of the swamp lauds have been 
used in the same way. The law provided that, if the contract- 
or elected to take lands for the construction of any road, as 
soon as his contract was accepted by the Board of Control, he 
had a right to select a portion or all the lands called for by his 
contract, and the Commissioner of the State Land Office would 
withdraw them irotn the market and hold them during the life 
of the contract; that whenever the contractor finished two miles 
or more of the road, and it was accepted by the local road com- 
missioner, he was entitled to receive deeds of so much land as 
he was entitled to per mile for making the road. 

As soon as the contract was accepted by the Board of Con- 
trol, the Swamp Land Commissioner credited the contractor 
with the amount of the contract. This was called "unmatured 

As fast as the contractor finished his road and had it accept- 
ed by the Road Commissioner, he was credited with so much 
"matured scrip," on which he was entitled to deeds. This 
scrip was transferable by an order from the contractor, di'awn 
on the Commissioner of the State Land Office. This scrip was 
placed upon the market and sold at a low figure, sometimes for 
less than one-half its purchasing value for land. 

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Besides these substitutes for cash, in the purchase of pine 
and other lands, were "bounty land warrants," issued to all 
persons who had been soldiers in the service of the United 
States. Those issued to soldiers of the war of 1812, were in 
the State of Michigan exempt from taxation for three years 
after the date of the patents. During the years 1865. 1866 
and 1867 the prices of those substitutes, in the hands of middle 
men or brokers, ranged about as follows: 

Land warrants of 1812, 40 acres, $ 40 to $ 48 

Laud warrants of 1812, SO acres, 88 t<> M 

Land warrants of 1812, 120 acres, 109 to 115 

Land warrants of 1812, 160 acres, 134 to 140 

Agricultural college scrip, 160 acres, 104 to 108 

Swamp land scrip, on the dollar, fifty to fifty-two cents. 

It may not be without interest to some of the readers of this 
book, to notice the condition of the currency of the connti-y, at 
this time. 

Hon. E. G. Spauldiug. in his history of the greenback, on 
pagt 198, says: "Gold and commodities continued to ad- 
vance in price. On the 15th of January, 1864, gold was 
$L55; on the 15th of April, SL78; on the loth of June, $L97, 
and on the 29th of June, $2.35 to $2.50, which showed that 
the legal tender notes were only worth forty cents on the dollar 
in gold. The next day, the 30th of June, 1864, Mr. Chase 
resigned the office of Secretary of the Treasury. At this time 
the inflated paper issues, outstanding, were over $1,100,000,- 
000. and in a few days thereafter, gold reached its highest 
quotations, $2.85, or more accurately speaking, greenbacks de- 
preciated until they were worth in gold thirty-five cents on the 
promised dollar, at the board of brokers, in the city of New 

It may be well to examine this point a little, to ascertain 
whether fjold appreciated, or as it is asserted, "that green- 
backs depreciated." Facts support the allegation that, among 

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the business meD nud laboring classes, in the United States, 
gold appreciated, the same as other property. Foreigners, and 
those basing their vabies on gold, claimed that the greenbacks 
had depreciated, but this was a fact, only when the greenback 
was taken out of the United States. Gold and foreign curren- 
cy, not being ns^d as a legal tender, became property, and with 
it fluctuated in prices. 

In 1864. a goljl dollar would buy, say $2.50 in greenbacks, 
and in 1870, it would buy only $1.12. Now, the gi-eenback 
would buy as much government land, in 1864, as it would in 
1S76. The taxes, State and county, were no more on the dol- 
lar, in 1864, than in 1876, and the greenback dollar would pay 
as much tax in 1864, as it would in 1876, and the greenback 
dollar would pay as much debt, in 1864, as in 1876. The gold 
dollar could not force the payment of any more taxes or debts, 
in 1864, than it could in 1876, nor could it buy any more gov- 
ernment land, unless it was exchanged for legal tender. 

Surely there was no depreciation shown by these facts, and 
if the people had to pay high prices for what they purchased, 
they also received high prices for what they sold, whether that 
was labor, lumber, iron or merchandise. All these circum- 
stances combined to make it extremely easy for any person to 
become the possessor of a piece o£ pine land, which was rap- 
idly increasing in value. Many, who had gold or Canada cur- 
rency, exchanged if for "the depreciated greenback," receiv- 
ing two dollars or moi'e for one, and then purchased scrip or 
land warrants, at about fifty per cent below their value, for 
land, making it cost the purchaser from twenty to thirty cents 
per acre, in gold. Many, in this way, were becoming wealthy, 
who did not appear on the income tax list, or add much to the 
figures of the Supervisor. These conditions extended to Al- 
pena and her surroundings, and was applicable more or less to 
all the Northern States, 

The following quotations from the Alpena Pioneer, of vari- 

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ous dates, will give you a better idea o£ the condition o£ things 
about the village, and the thrift and activity of the jwopie, than 
any report made by the writer: 

May 8th, 1869. 

James Hunt has laid the foundation for an upright to his 

Charley Cornell is making his lots lot»k much better by clear- 
ing them up, 

M. B. Spratt and Frank Starbird are improving the appear- 
ance of their houses, by new fences. 

J. B. Tuttle has bought a house on State street. 

J. H. Stevens has purchased the next lot., and has the lum- 
ber on the ground for building. Will it be safe for two law- 
yers to live so close together? 

Deacon Hitchcock is erecting a feed store, next to Hueber's 
meat market, 

Kesselmeyer has bought the residence of Robert Carnes, and 
has raised a two story building for a barber shop, grocery, etc. 

Dr. Maiden's new office and fence are a great improvement 
to his premises. 

W. M. Sutton has traded houses with E. K. Fotter, and is 
building an office between his house and Dr. Maiden's. 

E. K. Potter has a large pile of lumber on the site of the old 
drug store. AVe expect to see a hardware store there before 

J, W. Hall is building a cabinet shop for our friend Aber; 
also a dwelling house; and Mr. Todd a tailor shop and dwell- 
ing bouse, making that corner look lively. 

May 15, 1869. 
"We are pleased to see the improvements going on in the 
way of paint and shade trees. The idea of getting shade trees 
in this sand is quite discouraging, but when it proves success- 
ful, the beauty of the improvement more than repays the 

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J. 8. Minor is entirely refitting the residence purcbased of 
Leroy Bnndy, and building a fonce. 

W. H. Phelps lias erected a very convenient and substan- 
tial dwelling on Third street Ira Stout is finishing another 
for himself by its side, while the street is being extended south 
of the section line bridge, and five or six new buildings going 
up, the owners of which we did not learn. Going back to 
Chisholm street, we found a new fence, nearly finished, around 
Rev. Mr. Barlow's house, also preparations for building on 
John Elakuly's lot, (Wonder if this isn't a shadow, which 
a future event easts before.) The new coat of paint, on Mr. 
Mortimer's house, improves the appearance of this corner, 
and we observed some timbers on the site of the old Alpena 
Honse, which was burned down last New Year's. 

On Lockwood street, several buildings are going up, which 
causes our village to gradually creep towards Campbell ville. 
We learn that Henry Potter intends to make an addition of 
forty acres to the village, this spring. 

November 20th, 1869. 

Burrell's Hotel is improving very fast iu its appearance. 
Its new coat of paint, and its blinds, making it one of the most 
presentable buildings in town, Z. M. Knight has covered his 
new store and is finishing it up. It will "show a neat front 
to Water street. Abe Crowell is building a tasty residence 
near the Court House, which, with Mr. Chiaholm's new house 
on the opposite side, niakes that street look more attractive. 
From our window we can see the goodly proportions of Mr. 
Gilchrists' new residence, beautifully located on the banks of 
the river. On Chisholm street, Mr. Potvin's hotel makes glad, 
the waste place, where the old one burnt last New Year's. This 
new building needs another story to make it look well. John 
Blakely's cottage gives a very sunny appearance to that side of 
the street and makes a very desirable cage for the bird he 
caught this week. 

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The progi'ess of ngri culture, froul 18GC, was more than n 
doubtful experiment. The writer, having beeu correspondent 
of the county of Alpena for the Agricultural Department at 
Washington, from 18G3 to 1870, and compelled to make 
monthly returns to the department, during that time, his at- 
tention was called to that department of industry, perhaps 
more than any one in the county, and as he traveled over the 
country, in making surveys and exploring for pine iands, he 
naturally noticed the soil and its adaptation to raising farm 
produce, and he became early convinced, by observation and 
experiment, that there was but very little fault in the soil or 
climate, and that the application of intelligent labor, would 
place Alpena county among the best agricultural districts in 
the State. 

lu the fall of I860, the writer located the southeast quar- 
ter of section twenty-five, in town thiity-one north, of range 
six east, and the southwest quarter of section thirty, in town 
thirty-one north, of range seven east, being the first burnt lands 
purchased, for farming purposes. He sold these lands to Dr. 
J. B. Truas, H. Sawyer and H. King. 

Some time in 1860, Sawyer, for defending J. K. Miller and 
G. N. Fletcher, against the attack of some drunken men, was 
the nest day assailed by a mob, headed by one Crawford, 
whom Sawyer shot and killed instantly. For this be was ar- 
rested, tried, and bound over to the Circuit Court, and sent to 
Saginaw to jail, as there was none in Alpena, by the same class 
that assailed him, but he never had a trial, as the people re- 
fused to appear against him. More about this affair in the 
chapter on temperance. 

In consequence of this sad affair, Sawyer and Dr. Truax 
surrendered their contracts and left the place, while Mr. King 
paid for his land and became the first permanent farmer in the 

The writer subsequently sold the Truax quarter section to 

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IMPB0VEMENT8. ■ 119 

N. M. Brackinreed, in 18GS, and the Sawyer lot to Pardon 
Bnell, for farming purposes. This became the nucleus of n 

In 1867, Charles B. Greely and George B. Erskine com- 
menced to clear a farm in section nineteen or twenty, in town- 
ship thirty-one north, of range sis east. The land was densely 
covered with large sugar maple, beech and hemlock timber, 
and it I'equired a good ax, a strong arm, much will power, and 
persevering industry to make a large farm in this place. For- 
tunately, they possessed all these requirements, and constantly 
the sound of the ax and the crash of falling timber, could be 
heard, until a large piece was ready to be piled into log heaps 
and burned. This was done, and the ground was planted with 
{lotatoes and baga turnips, and Mr, Greely reported that the 
first crop brought them over one thousand dollars, besides 
what they used for the family and seed. This was the largest 
sale of farm produce that was raised in the county. The chop- 
ping, clearing, and planting contiimed until 1871, when they 
found that, from being the possessor of a good as each, and 
some other "traps," in 18C6, they were now the owners of a 
farm of two hundred acres, and more than one-half of that 
cleared, with a good house and barn, etc., good teams, wagons, 
and farming implements, and this mostly made from the land. 
Their prospects, at this time, were exceeding prosperous, but a 
dark cloud suddenly came over their sunshine. 

About two years prior to this, Mr. Erskine brought to his 
forest home a charming bride, a lady of about twenty-four 
summers, and who by her industry, cheerful disposition, and 
accommodating spirit, made her endearing to her husband, and 
his home bright and cheerful, and won for her the kind regard 
and respect of all that knew her. 

In June, 1870, she went to the State of Maine, to visit her 
mother, and while there, died, soon after giving birth to a son, 
that also died at, or soon aftar. its birth. When the sad news 

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of the death of his belovw! wife and darling son, readied Mr. 
Erskine, it gave him such a shock, and cast such a gloom over 
his onc-e happy home,'that he could not bear the thought of 
living there longer, and Mr. Greelj', sympathizing with him, 
they sold the farm and came to the city. 

In 1S7(5, the property belonged to Mr. Emerson, having 
[lassed throiigli several parties. 

Soon after Messrs. Greely and Erskine commenced their 
farming, they were foJIowed into the woods by Mr. Kimball, 
who located a farm on the south side of them, and Mr. Green, 
who located near them on the northeast, while A. E. Rich- 
ardson commenced to clear a large farm, a mile or so east of 
them, and who soon had a large clearing, with a good frame 
house and barn. This formed the beginning of another settle- 

About the same time, 1866 or 1807, James A. Case and 
William Hawley commenced to clear farms on Thunder Bay 
river, in section thirty-one, in township thirty-two north, of 
range seven east, and John Mainville and one or two others, 
located in section twenty-eight, of the same town and range, 
and while Mr. Case was debating with himself, whethei' farm- 
ing there would pay, and the probability of any more settlers, 
Mainviile was disputing his rights with a family of beavers, for 
the occupancy of an old beaver pond. This, with Autoine's 
clearing, at the month of the North Branch, was the firet set- 
tlement in this township. 

Iq 18G7, James Demster, William Pulford, David Dunn, 
and a few others, settled on homesteads, a few miles east of 
Alpena city, and about the same time, E. Woodruff and Ales. 
Macaulay and others, settled on and near Partridge Point. 

Richard Naylor commenced farming about three miles north- 
west from the city, and a few other settlers at other points, so 
that, in June, 1869, the writer reported to the Department of 
Agriculture, at Washington, thirty-six farmers in the county. 

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In 1870, the Eev. F. N. Barlow commencetl to build a large 
steam ' sawmill, and booming gi-ounds, out in the bay, near the 
south pier. He commenced the work, by running a large crib 
around an area of the bay, sufficiently large to hold his logs, and 
drove piles for the foundation of his mill, out in the water, to 
be filled in around it with the refuse from the mill, which was 
afterwards done. This mill was finished in 1871, and run one 
large circular saw, one of J. B. Wayne's iron gangs, two patent 
edgers, one gang lath mill, one drag saw, two clapboard saw- 
ing machines and one sapper, for clapboard bolts. It had also, 
in connection, a planing mill, with one large iron planer, and 
a clapboard planer, one re-sawing machine, two ripping saws, 
and one butting saw. This mill gave employment to, from forty- 
five to fifty men, and was valued at fifty thousand dollars. The 
refuse from tho mill soon filled all the places, that I'efuse could 
be used to advantage, besides making steam. A large wrought 
iron refuse burner was made, ample in capacity, for burning 
the accumulations, together with machinery for conveying the 
refuse, directly from the saws to the burner. 

This property changed owners several times, passing, from 
Mr. Barlow to George Prentiss & Co., and from them to the 
Alpena Lumber Co. In 1876 it is owned by Mr. Churchill. 

The city of Alpena is indebted to the thrift .and business 
push and capacity of Mr. Barlow, in this enterprise, for the 
large and important extension of territory, the stability of her 
harbor improvements, the accumulation of fifty thousand dol- 
lars of wealth to the city, and the addition of, at least, one hun- 
drfid inhabitants, and while Mr. Barlow got more experience 
ont of the operation, than money, yet it was a permanent good 
for the place. 

In 1871, A. K. Richardson built, on Maine street, the first . 
brick dwelling in the city. Soon aft«r the fire, in April, Bolton 
& McRae built a lai'ge, three story and basement brick block, 
on the corner of Dock and Fletcher streets, being the firat brick 

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store in the city. This year a telegraph line was extended from 
Bay City to Alpena, and will be noticed in the chapter on com- 

Events in history take place in regular succession, the same 
as the events in a person's life, and it is impossible for any 
ereut to take place before its antecedent So with the growth 
of Alpena. Among its first wants were streets and roads, and 
BB soon as these became well made, horses and carriages were 
in order, and needed; and people who conld not keep a horse 
and carriage, borrowed, or hired of those who had, until a liv- 
ery stable became necessary, as one of the appendages of the 
city. J. E. Beach was the first one in the city to keep horses 
and carriages for hire. In 1871, McDade & Co. built and 
maintained a Hvery stable, on the corner of Washington avenue 
and Second street. 

In the winter of 1872 and 1873, John S. Minor built his new 
mill, on the old disputed middle gronnd. It was planned for 
two five and a half feet circular saws. In 1S76, he employed 
twenty-tour men, and cut, witli one circular saw. five and a half 
million feet of lumber. 

Prior to 1872, all the banking business for Alpena was done 
in Detroit. But very little currency was taken at Alpena, for 
the reason that there was no safe place for deposit. Mill men 
in Alpena checked out of Detroit banks, and payees generally 
spent a large portion of the money in Detroit; and this dwarfed 
the trade of Alpena, and kept it without money. On the lat of 
March, 1872, Charles Bewick, Andrew W. Comstock and Wil- 
Ham B. Comstock organized The Alpena Banking Co., with A. 
"W. Comstock as cashier. In April of the same year, Gen, L. 
Maltz and J. L. Whiting organized The Exchange Bank, with 
Geo. L. Maltz as cashier. These banks brought a large amount 
of currency into the city; supplied the needs of the business 
men of Alpena, and became very important institutions of the 
place. A large hotel was erected this season, by George N. 

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Fletclier, of Detroit, under certain arrangements with the. peo- 
ple o£ Alpena, and called the Fletcher House. It is eituateii 
on the bay shore, and occupies the whole space between Water 
and Biver streets, one front of one hundred and forty feet fac- 
ing the bay; one front of one hundred and forty feet fac- 
ing Water street, and fifty-one feet fronting on River street, 
the whole being forty-five feet wide. The bnilding is three 
stories high; the first story fifteen feet, the second story four- 
teen feet, and third story twelve feet, and surrounded by a 
mansard roof aod observatory, which commands a viei? of the 
bay, with its islands and various points. This bouse is warm- 
ed by steam, and lighted with gaa manufactured for the par- 
pose. It is intended to be, in all its arrangements, a first class 

Although Alpena was considered a very healthy place, yet it 
sometimes happened that people died there; and it therefore 
became necessary to have a place to bury them. For this pur- 
pose, and to locate and establish the first cemetery in the city 
of Alpena, Daniel Carter, in July, 1873, donated to the city, 
ten acres of land, from the southwest quarter of the southwest 
quarter of section 21, in town 31 north, of range 8 east. We 
too often find cemeteries located so near growing towns, that 
they soon become sunounded with buildings; become a nui- 
sance, and have to be moved. This one, however, is located 
near the western limits of the city, on the Section Line Road, 
so called, and so far away that it never will be reached by the 
buildings of the city. It is located on a sandy plain, covered 
with spruce pine trees, and when properly improved will be a 
very peaceful spot fo repose this "mortal coil," when the spirit 
that gave it lite has left it and gone to higher spheres. The 
only objection to it is its homogeneousness. The first white 
pereou buried in this cemetery was a man by the name of Peter 
Duclos, and the first Indian buried there was Pe-na-se-won-a- 
quot, son of the old chief Sog-ou-e-qua-do. 

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Directly after the great fire of July 12th, 1872, the City Fa- 
thers passed au ordinance, establishing a fire limit, which was 
very ni.nch opposed, as being unnecessary in so small a town; 
but it bad this good effect, that it caused parties on Second 
street to re-build with brick, and gave an impulse to the struc- 
ture of such buildings as gave permanency and beauty to the 
place; and from this time until 1S76, brick buildings were the 
order of the day. In 1873, A. McDonald erected a fine brick 
block, on Second street, and in the' same or following year. 
Potter Bros. & Co.. F. S. Goodrich and Chas. C. Whitney built 
large. brick stores, on Second street. In 1875, Pack and Black- 
burn erected fine brick stores, and in 1876, Deacon Hitchcock 
built the brick Centennial building, on the site ot the old court 
house Other laige and substantial buildings were erected on 
the burnt district, during this time, the details of which the 
wiitei has not been able to reach 

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Alpeua has beon a great sufferer from fires. Perhaps no place 
of its age and population has been viaited by the fire king so 
often, and with such terrible effect, as Alpena. In 1860, an 
extensive fire run through the woods adjoining Alpena, destroy- 
ing much valuable timber, both standing and made into flat and 
square timber, and destroyed a large mill frame belonging to 
G. N. Fletcher, and one of the mill frames made by John Cole, 
in the winter of 1858 and 1859. 

In 1862, another fire from the woods, destroyed Loekwood & 
Minor's new steam mil!, shortiy after being enclosed, and burn- 
ed, also, a number of small buildings, the loss being consider- 
able for Loekwood & Minor at that time. 

In 1863, the large steam mill belonging to Smith & Cham- 
berlain, was destroyed by fire, resulting in a loss to the owners 
and to the place, that cannot be estimated. The property was 
valued at $30,000. It was thought by many, at the time, (o 
have been the work of an incendiary, A shingle mill, built 
and owned by Thomas Robinson, in 1860, and running in con- 
nection with the shingle mill, the first planer brought to Alpena, 
was destroyed by fire, in 1807. This was a ruinous loss to Mr, 
Robinson, as he had placed in it all the means he had; was 
without insurance, and was unable to re-build. Another shingle 
mill, built in 1866, and owned by Hopper & Davis, waS burned 
soon after Robinson's. This fire so crippled their business re- 
lations that for a long time the mill was not re-built; and the 
damaging result to their future prosperity could not be esti- 
mated. And still another shingle mill was destroyed by flre, 
but I cannot state the time. This mill was the first of its kind 
ei-ected in Alpena, and was built by G. S. -Lester. A tar fac- 

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tory, owned by Martin Minton, was submitted to tlie flames. 
Some other tires occurred between 18fj3 and 1869, the particu- 
lars of which the writer has not been able to procure. Soon 
after the burning of the shingle mill and planing mill of Tbos. 
Robinson, Scott Doane, Moses Eingham and J. E. Beers form- 
ed a co-partnership, for the purpose of carrying on the general 
planing business, and maliing doors, sash and blinds, on the 
north side of the river, near the bay. On the 1st of June, 1868, 
Beers retired from the tinn, and the business was continued by 
Doane & Bingham. Tiiey run a surface planer and matcher, 
a large molding and sash machine, and other auxiliary 
saws and machinery. At this time, a demand arose among the 
lumbermen for grinding feed, and Mr, Bingham, being a prac- 
tical miller, as well as an excellent mechanic, resolved to sup- 
ply the want. The firm soon started a feed mill iu connection 
with their sagh factory, capable of grinding three hundred 
bushels of feed per day. All went on well until the 3d of May, 
1869, when the fii-e king, which seemed to have had his head- 
quarters near Alpena in those days, burned the upper story of 
their sash factory, together with a quantity of dry lumber. 

Since 1866. some daring experimenters in farming had rais- 
ed, contrary to expectations, a large quantity of wheat, and 
they wished to have it made into flour. The firm determined 
to meet the exigency. They soon enlarged, and changed their 
feed mill into a grist mill, with a bolt and other machinery for 
making flour with success. This gave great encouragement to 
the farming interest. The firm was now doing excellent work, 
and progressing finely, until October Ist, 1870, when the fire 
king made them a serious visit. Not to be foiled again by 
"that hose," this time he started the fire in the engine room, 
and in a few minutes the factory and mill were in flames. 
Nothing was saved, nor had they any insurance. For years of 
labor they had only a mass of blackened ruins and disappoint- 
ed hopes. But they possessed intrinsic value in themselves. 

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and had the confidence, esteem and sympathy of the people. 
By their persevering toil and fair dGaling, they had built up an 
industiy which the [wople of Alpena could not afford to see blot- 
ted out. The Alpenians never allowed a necessary institution 
to die, and that which they needed they always made Btreuuous 
efforts to obtain. Meetings were held by the people, and ar- 
rangements soon made for money and credit for the firm, bo 
that tbey could commence at once to re-buiUl on the site of the 
old factory; and in June, 1871, they came out with a new edi- 
tion, revised and enlarged by the authors. It would seem that 
"Hia Fire Majesty" took particular delight in destroying the 
public houses of Alpena, for every one erected prior to 1872, 
was given to the flames, except the re-buikl of the Alpena 
House, the first one being destroyed on the 1st of January, 
1868. This was a large loss to Julins Potvin, the proprietor, 
who, as soon as he had recovered a little from the daze occa- 
sioned by the fire, commenced to re-build a larger and better 
house, on the site of the burned one, and soon had it ready for 
the accommodation of the public. 

In 1863, a court house was finished, by Deacon Hitchcock, 
according to a contract between him and the Board of Super- 
visors, and was known as the "Deacon's Court Hotise." This 
was burned in 1870, under circumstances which gave rise to 
suspicions that it was the work of an incendiary; but no proof 
of the fact could ever be elicited. 

In the summer of 1870, the dwelling of Fulton Bundy was 
given to the flames, and a "right smart" fire it was. And in' 
February, 1871, another fire occuiTed, which consumed the 
foundry and machine shop of David Crippen, valued at $5,000, 
and insured for $2,000, together with a boarding house belong- 
ing to Lockwood & Minor, and valued at $1,800, and insured 
for $1,000. 

The north side of Dock street had been built up with good 
buildings. Next to the river, on the north side, was a large 

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snd commodious public ho»]se, owned and occupied by Samuel 
Bogge, called the Huron House, and on the opposite side o£ 
the street was a large buildiug, used as a store and Storehouse, 
owned by J. C. Bowen, and tH;cupied by Folkerts & Butter- 
field. On the northeast of Dock and Fletcher streets was the 
store and residence o£ Bolton & McEae, On the opposite cor- 
ner was the Union Star Hotel, and next to it, north, was the 
Evergreen Hall, so named by the ladies of Alpena, for the taste- 
ful manner in which J. R. Beach, the owner of this and the 
Star Hotel, had decorated it with evergreens for some festive oc- 
casion. Moses Bingham owned and occupied a large dwelling, 
on the next lot north of Evergreen Hall, At this time, busi- 
ness on the east side of the river began to assume a lively ap- 
pearance; the bridge was in fair condition, and the hotels run 
carriages to the boats, for passengers, so that visitors to Al- 
pena could find good accommodations. "But a change came 
over the spirit of their dreams," the powers that "dominate be- 
hind the scenes" had engaged the fiend to destroy their prop- 
erty and bright anticipations, for on the 9th day o£ April, 1871, 
about noon, the alarm of fire was given, from the billiard saloon 
of Guild & Olewley, in the Beebe block, situated near the cen- 
ter between"the Huron House and Bolton & McRae's store. It 
was soon discovei'ed that all the buildings on that side of the 
street would be destroyed, as everything was very dry, and the 
village had no engine or any organized fire company, so every- 
thing was in confusion, as might be expected, under the cir- 
cumstances. It was soon seen that the most that could be done, 
was to save what of the furniture and goods they could, and let 
the fire burn itself out. Accordingly, the people got two light- 
ers from the opposite side of the river, on which they piled the 
contents of the buildings nearest the river, and carried them 
beyond the reach of the fire ; but many of the goods and fur- 
niture of the Star Hotel and other buildings in the vicinity, 
were carried into the streets and there burned before they could 

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again be moved. Wbea the fire reached Bolton & McRae's 
store, the wind was blowing quite fresh, and soon carried the 
flames across the street, to the Star Hotel and other buildings 
in the vicinity, which soon became a heap o£ ruins. The prin- 
. cipal buildings destroyed in this fire, were the Huron House, 
owned and occupied by Samuel Boggs, and valued at ^10,000. 
He had an insurance on the property of $2,000 only, and this 
was for the benefit of Benj. C. Hardwiek, who then held a 
mortgage on the same. The Star Hotel and Evei-green Hall, 
owned and occupied by J. R, Beach, and valued at $12,000. 
He also had a small insurance of $3,000 on his buildings, for 
the benefit of T. Luce & Co. Those parties were the greatest 
sufferers by this fire. The small insurance oniy paid the in- 
debtedness on their property, and left them nothing with which 
to re-build. For their industry and enterprise, they had noth- 
ing left but the lots and blackened ruins, and the furniture sav- 
ed from the fire; but they were both good mechanics, and of 
cheerful and hopeful dispositions, and nqt being easily discour- 
aged, they soon gathered up what they had and commenced 
work, in hopes to retrieve their losses ; but the destroyer was 
still on their tracks, as the sequel will show. The building 
occupied by Folkerts & Butterfield, and owned by J. C. Bowen, 
was valued at $4,500, and insured for $3,000. The goods 
of Folkerts & Butterfield were covered by insurance. The 
building owned by Henry Beebe, valued at S3, 500, had no in- 
surance. The dwelling of Moses Bingham, valued at $2,500, 
with no insurance. Both of these losses were severe, but did 
not fall with such crushing weight upon Mr. Beebe, as he had 
means to re-build, as it did on Mr. Bingham, who had so re- 
cently sustained a heavy loss in the burning of the Doane, 
Bingham & Co. sash and blind factory. The building and 
goods of Bolton & McKae were fully insured, which prevented 
a ruinous disaster to them and much loss to the place. Others 
sustained losses, which the writer is unable to particularize. 

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The city felt a eevere loss in the destruction o£ Evergreen Hall, 
as it deprived the people of any hall suitable for holding public 
entertainments, and the city was again without hotel accommo- 
datious for the traveling public. 

There is au old saying: "There is no great loss without 
some small gain," and this may be applied in a very small way 
in this case. It taught the people of Alpena, and the new- 
ly made "City Fathera," the extreme necessity of organizing a 
fire company, and procuring a steam fire engine; and this busi- 
ness must have been among the first of their official acts, for in 
May, 1871, the first fire company was organized, by electing 
the following officers: 

Foreman — ^A. L. Power. 

Assistant Foreman — Fred. Buchanan. 

Secretary — G. W. Hawkins. 

Treasurer^L. B. Howard. 

G. W. Hawkins, J. T. Bostwick and William Johnson were 
appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws. 

A. L. Power, 
Fred, Buchanan, 
Geo. W. Hawkins, 
L. E. Howard, 
Geo. Plough, 
Theo. Luce, 
Thos. H. Lester, 
Fred. Smith, 

C. E. Wilcox, 
A. F. Fletcher, 
Abe Crowell, 

D. G. Aber, 
S. A. Aber, 
M. MeCoUmn, 
K. Bradshaw, 
M. McLeod, 
R. J. Kelley, 
John D. Potter, 
3. R. Beach, 

C. C. Whitney, 
Thos. C. Lester, 


A. W. Comstock, James Walker, 

H. S " " " ' ' ' 

J. T. Bostwick, 
N. Carpenter. 
E. G. Johnson, 
Will. Hitchcock, 
Wm. Johnson, 
John Kesten, 
Geo. Speech ley, 
H. S. Seage, 

A. D. Stout, 
Henry Nipbee, 
Roland Galbraith, 
Andrew Guyld, 
George Jones, 
James Murray, 
William Wall, 
Frank Northrop, 
Burt Buehai 

E. C. Chamberlain, Ricbard Campbell, 

J. J. Potter, John Vance, 

H. Jacobs, Douglass Scott, 

Ed. Thomson, John Dunford. 

James Ambrose, Jarvis R. Watson, 

Johnson Woods, Alex. Taylor, 

Thomas McGinn, A. W. Mather, 

James Woods, Daniel Thompson, 

C. A. Jeyte, Heman Kimball, 

John Keriis, H. Broadwell, 

Benj. Haywood, Wm. Edwards. 

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Oil the 4th day of July o£ the same year, a well uniformed 
and equipped 6re company, with a steam fire engine, was, for 
the first time, paraded in Alpena, and his Honor, Mayor Setli 
L. Carpenter, addressed them in a very appropriate speech. 
The engine and company were named after au old chief of the 
Thunder Bay band of Indians — Sog-oii-e-qua-do, His name is 
mentioned iu the first chapter. 

Soon after the destruction of the Star Hotel, J. E. Beach 
rented the American House of Gelos Potvin, and commenced 
again to keep a public house, as they were at this time much in 
demand. Ho opened some time in May, and in October of the 
same year, was again compelled to flee before the devouring 
flames. This time his loss was not large, as he saved most of 
his furniture ; but he lost his business, and no man can be 
thrust out of business without sustaining considerable loss. 
Only a part of the house was consumed, as the fire company 
was promptly on the ground, and did good service. The suc- 
cess of this engine led the people to suppose that they were 
safe from the attacks of large fires. But the fire king was 
laughing to think what a "big smoke" he would give them the 
next season, and show them how utterly inadequate was such 
an engine to quench his wrath, when once fairly kindled. 

In the spring of 1872, we find Mr. Beach pi-oprietor of the 
Eurrell House, but the same destroyer was still on his tracks, 
and followed him there, and he was again burned out in the big 
fire, this time losing all he had. 

Soon after the loss of the Huron House, Mr. Eoggs purchas- 
ed some property of Dr. W. P. Maiden, on Second street, and 
commenced to erect a hotel called the Shei-man House. He 
had scarcely finished and opened it, before it was swept away 
in the great fire — the fire being particularly severe on the 

The account of the great fire we shall give as we find it in 
the Alpena Pioneer Extra, of the date of July 13th, 1872. 

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Loss of Property $200,000— Insurance $80,000. 

Sixty-Five Buildings Burned — F.our Persons Burned to Death. 
Otliera Badly Burned. 
At fifteen minutes to five o'clock yesterday afferiioou, July 
12th, the barn in the rear of the Shei'man House, a house re- 
cently opened, and owned and occupied by Samuel Boggs, was 
discovered to be on fire. The alarm was given, and the engine 
in position promptly, but there was some delay in getling up 
steam. The fire being among haj', spread with fearful rapidity, 
and in an incredibly short time the Sherman House and Good- 
rich's jewelry store were envelopRd in flames. The engine 
commenced to play, but the wind blowing fresh from the north- 
west, carried the fire with astonishing rapidity across the street, 
into the row of business houses on the south side of the street. 
Crowell & Godfrey's building, the Burrell House, McDonald's 
building, Blackburn's building, the Huron House, Maltz's res- 
idence, and the bfirns and offices, etc., in that block, were soon 
all ablaze. Mayor Pack's I'esidence and office were burned. 
Potter & Bros', hardware store, McDade & Gavagan's hotel, 
and Oomstock's mil! and boarding house were burned. Abers 
building and furniture rooms, and the whole row of houses ou 
the north side of Eiver street to Luce's mill. The fire raged 
until about sis o'clock, before its limits were confined, when it 
had destroyed al;»out three and a half blocks, containing about 
sixty-five buildings. Among the heaviest losers were Potter & 
Bros., Anspach &■ Co., C. Burrell & Co., A. Pack & Co., George 
L. Maltz & Co,, P. McDade, F. S. Goodrich, Charles C. Whit- 
ney. These might not have been the greatest sufferers, as 
many lost all they had. The Alpena Weekly Argus office was 
entirely destroyed. But the saddest record we have to make, 
is the burning to death of three persons, and badly burning of 

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three others, one o£ whom has sinee died. Mrs. Wesfcbrook, 
keeping a millinery store, on 8econd street, perished in the 
street, in front of her store, and conld not be rescued until 
nothing but her bones remained. The bones of two others, 
supposed to be men, have been found. George Westbrook, sou 
of the milliner, was so badly burned, in trying to rescue his 
mother, that he has since died. A sailor named Kelly, and 
George Weetby, Barlow's engineer, are very badly burned. 
Doubts are entertained of Westby's recovery. One of the men 

burned is supposed to be JoLu Lav 

in. The county papers were 


We Blibjoin au imperfect list of 

suiferers and their losses, as 

hastily estimated: 



A. Pack k Co., 



C. C. Whitney, 



Samuel Boggs, 



Aber Bros., 


P. S. Goodricli, 



Mrs. H. G. Westbrook, 


Potter Pros., 



Anspaoh & Co., 



A. L. Power & Co., 



MoColInm 4 Co., 



P. MoDado, 



J. Gavagan, 




H. EatoD, 



Mrs. Minton, 


J. W, Hall, 



0. Golling, 



Wm. McMaster, 



Mrs. Murray, 


Geo. L. Malta, 



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T. Lsloiide, 



R. Ambrose, 



0. T. PaxtOD, 



T. H. Hunt, 



G. N. Blackburn, 



Clewlej * Woods, 


Crowell & Godfrey. 



Buiroll * Lee, 



.r. E. Beach, 


Wm. Vanlnwegen, 


J. 8. Minor, 



Engine House, 


•J. C. Chisliolni, 



Odd Fellows, 



J. W. Creighton, 



William Todd, 



J. C. Part, 



.r. C. Keed, 


Dr. Maiden, 


L. Dojle, 



M. M. Viall, 


C. Wnrst, 


Goodnow & Uow, 


And a number of others. 

The county papers were 

! saved. 

This last paragraph can be explained by saying that, soon 

after the court house was 

destroyed by fire, ir 

1 1870, the eonrt 

and county oifices, and the eonrt and county 

records were re- 

moved to rooms in the Potter block, on Second street, and hatl 

again to pass through the 

uncertainties of a lar 

ge lire; but they 

were all saved. 

■ The experience of the 

last tire convinced the city officials 

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that their fire department was too ^emall to work successfully 
Against a large fire. In July, 1875, at a special meeting of the 
Commou Coniicil, a resolution was passed, for the purpose of 
purchasing one of Silsby's No. 4 size rotary steam fire engines, 
for the sum of $5,850, with hose cart and hose. The engine 
was soon after purchased, and a fire company organized, called 
Alpena No. 2. Robert Oliver was appointed First Engineer. 

Soon after this, a change was made in the management 
of the fire department. And uow they had th(! engines and a 
proper organization, there was a scarcity of wattr ; and large 
tanks had to be made in various parts of the city, for a supply. 
These tanks proved to be only a jiartial success, as the water 
was muddy, and many of them with a scanty supply. It is 
hoped that not far in the future, the city will be well supplied 
with water from the river or lake; and until this supply of wa- 
ter is had, but little progress can be made against fires, as the 
following will show: 

In June, 1875, E. Harrington's house and barn were burned, 
valued at $4,500; insured for $3,000; Eobei-t Napper's black- 
smith shop and wagon factory, valued at $6,000, and insured 
for $1,500; H. J. Eaton's residence, valued at $3,000, and in- 
sured for $2,000. 

On February 25th, 1870, Henry Beebe's block was a second 
time destroyed by fire. Building and stock valued at $12,000, 
and insured for $4,000. Michael O'Brien lost his stock of 
boots, shoes, leather, etc, valued at $4,000, and insured for 
$1,000; and soon after this the residence of Dr. Jeyte was de- 
stroyed, valued at $4,000, and insured for $2,300. On the last 
day of November of the same year, the Myers block, so called, 
and the olclest building in the city, was burned. How it caught 
fire was a mystery. Some other fires occurred, the details of 
which the writer has not been able to obtain. This chapter is 
the most gloomy and thankless of any in the history of Alpena, 
bat it aflfords some food for cai'eful thought and study. 

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In looking over the list of sufforers by the several fires, yon 
will find that those who needed insurance the most, had the 
least, and some had no insurance at all. Our fellow citizens, 
Samuel Boggs, J. R. Boaeh, Thomas Robinson and othera, are 
poor men this Centennial year, simply because they did not 
keep fully insured ; and Mrs. Westbrook and son probably owe 
their shocking and untimely deaths to the same cause. Many 
not only lost their property by the fire, but being without in- 
surance or means to re-build, they were swept out of a lucrative 
and monopolized business worth to them many times the value 
of the property they lost. It is impossible to reach the exact 
value of property destroyed by fires in Alpena, between 1857 
and 1876, but we can approximate very nearly, and keeping 
withi^ the bounds of certainty, we have the very nice sum of 
$342,900. lu 1873, the assessed valuation of property in Al- 
pena city, was $906,640, so that, by these firgures, one-third of 
the entire accumulations of the people for eighteen years, had 
been destroyed by fires. About $100,000 of this loss has been 
paid back by the insurance companies, leaving a dead loss upon 
the industry of the people, during that time, of twenty-five per 

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Mail. — Long before the writer came to Thunder Bay, and 
probably since the establishment of the railifary poste at Sault 
Ste. Marie and Mackinaw, a mail route had been established 
between these points and Saginaw, and carried along the west 
shore of Lake Huron, on the backs of men or on sledges drawa 
by dogs, and for that reason the mail is placed in this chapter, 
before steamers or roads. The conveyance of the U. S. mail 
was entrusted to the care of Frenchmen and half-breeds, and 
was carried on their backs, but mostly on what they called a 
trainaud, and drawn by dogs over the ice and snow. The 
trainaud was made of two flat pieces of oak, maple or birch wood, 
about one-half inch thick, six or seven inches wide, and from 
nine to fonrteen feet long. These were fastened together with 
cross-bars, and nicely turaexi up at one end. On this the mail 
was placed, with their camp and provisions, and fastened to the 
trainaud with cords attached to the cross-bare. The dogs were 
placed tandem, or one before the other, and attached to the 
trainaud by long traces. The dogs were generally large, mus- 
cular animals, well trained for the work, and capable of much 
endurance; and in early times were often very fancifully har- 
nessed. The harness consisted of a buckskin collar, with 
hames of some bright metal, and extending about six inches 
above the neck of the dog, and turned with a whorl at the top, 
in which was suspended a nice little bell. The straps were all 
made of black leather, with large housing of red broadcloth, 
when the dog was of a dark color, and blue when the dog v/oa 
of a light color. The housings were fringed with a long yel- 
low fringe, and nicely worked with beads all over. The men 
were rapid travelers, making trips from Bay City to Sault Ste. 

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Marie iu four days, under favorable circumstanoes — a distance 
of about two hundred and twenty miles— and in two instanci'S 
they made, under a reward, a traverse from Bay City to Devil 
river, in seventeen hours — a distance of oue huudred miles or 

Having given some idea how the mail was carried on the 
Lake Huron shore, at the time Fremont was tii-st settled, we 
now pi-oceed to give some details in regard to Ihe establishment 
of the first postofflee in Alpena county. Among the many pri- 
vations that are experienced by the early settlers of a country, 
is the absence of reading matter and mail facilities. The 
American thinks it a hardship to do without his newspaper, if 
only for a short time, and receives it again with as much eager- 
ness as he does his "bread and butter," after being without his 
dinner. The first settlers of Alpena were no esception to the 
Vule, and Mr. Cai'ter says, in a letter to George N. Fletcher, 
under date of the 14th of February, 1857: "I want you to 
send more papers; we read everytliing all to pieces." As soon 
as A. F. Fletcher arrived in Fremont, he became sensible of 
this great want of mail, and in his first letter to his cousin. G. 
N. Fletcher, he says: "You ought to write to Washington 
about a postofflee." Soon after this letter, a petition went to 
Washington, for a postoifice at Fremont, and on the 15th of 
January, 1858, the papers arrived from Washington, establish- 
ing a postofflee at Fremont, with Daniel Carter as post- 
master, together with blanks and other things necessary for the 
newly madi- postmaster to exercise the functions of his office. 
From 1850 to this time, the writer received his mail in the 
winter, through arrangements made with the postmaster at Bay 
City, and the mail carriers, the writer's mail being made into 
a sealed package and carried outside the mail bags; and in 
summer, by arrangements with the postmaster at Detroit, and 
his schooner and other vessels coming to Devil river for lum- 
ber — receiving his mail quite regularly during the winter, and 

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at intervals of from one week to one month during the summer. 
Soon after the operations of the postoffice at Fremont had 
commenced, it waa discovered that there was another Fremont 
in the State, and some letters occasionally went to the wrong 
Fremont, and the people had the name changed to Alpena post- 
office. Then letters sometimes went to a place called Alpine, 
and the name of the postoffice was again changed to Thunder 
Bay postoffice, and subsequently to Alpena postoffice, which 
name it still retains. Having a mail route established along 
the lake shore, for the winter season, the mail came regularly 
once a week during the winter, but having no mail route estab- 
lished for the summer season, the office had to depend on such 
arrangements as the postmaster could make with the postmas- 
ter at Detroit, and circumstances. When any responsible per- 
son went to Detroit, and to return soon, he was authorized to 
carry the mail; and about the last words to those leaving for 
Detroit, were, "Don't forget the mail." This st-ate of things 
continued only one summer. Mr. Carter petitioned the depart- 
ment at "Washington, to establish a mail route between Bay 
City and Fremont, in the summer season. They replied that 
they could not establish a mail route, but would grant him the 
whole proceeds of the office for the purpose of carrying the 
mail. During the summers of 1859, 1860 and 1861, Mr. Car- 
ter procured the mail to be carried between Bay City and Al- 
pena, as often as it conld be carried, in a small boat; and at 
the end of the three years, Mr. Carter found himself to the 
good, less expenses, about two hundred dollars. The mail was 
then carried by steamers, running between Alpena and Bay 
City, for the proceeds of the Alpena postoffice and the other 
offices along tiie shore, and what the people donated, until July, 
1866, when a regular mail route was established; and from 
that time until 18715, there has been a daily mail carried on 
the boats, and as regular as the weather would permit. Up 
to 1863, the winter mail hatl been carried by "dog train," along 

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the shore. Tbis winter, tlie armiigemeiit wns changed, anil 
the "dog train" came only as far as Fremont, and returned. 
Mr. Carter, under a sub- contract, carried the mail between Fre- 
mont and Bay City, and continued to carry it in the winter, 
until the summer route was established, in ISfiG. It 
was then carried by stage, until 1870. Mr. Carter's house was 
made the tirst postoffice, and this, as well as many other of the 
institutions that now belong to Alpena, took their incipient 
growth at Mr. Carter's hoase. For remuneration as postmas- 
ter, Mr. Carter was to have sixty per cent of the revenue ffom 
the office, yet his salary for the first year did not reach the 
moderate sum of five dollars. Mr. Carter resigned the office 
in April, 18G0, but was not relieved until October, when E. K. 
Potter was appointed his successor, and following hina in office 
was Leroy Bundy. The present incnmbent, in ISTfi, is W. D. 
Hitchcock, and the fourth on the list of Alpena postmasters. 
The office is now one of considerable importance, being made ft 
money order office in 1868. Its revenue, in 18715, being $3,- 
627.31; and the noiount of orders issued reached the sum of 

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$24,036.09. In 1807, through the influence of the writer, a 
postoffice was established at Ossineke, called the Oasineke posf- 
offiee, and the appointment o£ George B. Melville as postmaster. 
The revenue of the office, for the first year, was a little over 
three hundred dollars. In 1876, there were four postoflSces in 
the county, two as above stated, and one called Long Rapids 
postoffice, with John Louden as postmaster, and one called East 
Bide postoffice, with Mrs. Ellen Roberts as post mi stress. 

Bl Water. — Prior to 1844, but little was known of Alpena 
county, and its waters were very seldom visited by any craft 
larger than a fishing boat. In 1845 and 1846, Thunder Bay 
Island becoming a large fishing station, made it profitable for 
steamboats going around the lakes, to call at this island, for 
freight and passengers. In 1846, the fishermen on the island 
entered into an agreement with two steamers, to call at the 
island every trip up and down during the season, when the 
weather would pei'mit; and it became a habit with all the 
steamers to land passengers at the island, and call for them 
when signaled for them to call, by hoisting a flag. And this 
habit, once obtained, continued until 1859; and most of the 
travel to and from Fremont was by this route— the freight 
mostly coming on sail vessels. After the sawmill was built at 
Devil river, vessels occasionally came there for lumber. In 
1852, the writer purchased the schooner Marshall Ney, and run 
it regularly from his mill, at Devil river, to Cleveland, for four 
years. Occasionally, during this time, small vessels came in 
search of freight or trade. In 1859 and 1860, the business of 
Fremont having largely increased, steamers found it profitable 
to make occasional trips there, and Capt. Darius Cole, owner of 
the steamer Columbia, was induced by the people of Alpena, to 
place his boat on the route between Fremont and Detroit, and 
in a short time began making regnlar trips. The Columbia 
being a small boat, was able to land her passengers and freight 
on the dock inside the river, while the Forest Queen, that came 

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to Fremont only when she could obtain a profitable freigbt, wna 
compelled to iay outside the river, and discharge her freight 
and passengers on lighters and boats, on account of the sand- 
bar at the mouth of the river. In the spring of 1860, we find 
the following ill the Detroit papers: "Steamer Columbia, Da- 
rius Cole, Master, leaves Detroit every Monday, at 2 p. m., ar- 
rives at Bay City Wednesday morning, a:id leaves Bay City for 
Thunder Bay every Wednesday morning, at 10 o'clock." At 
the same time, the Forest Queen made trips to Tawas, every 
Friday, and every other Friday extended her trips to Au Sable, 
and sometimes came to Fremont, From 1859 to the fall of 
18G4, the Columbia continued to make weekly trips from De- 
troit to Alpena, and the Forest Queen came when she could get 
ft paying freight. In 1863, the Genesee Chief, Capt. Clark. 
run on the Bay City route, and continued on that route until 
the fail of 1867. In the fall of 1864. the Sky Lark, Capt. A. 
G. Kipley, came on the Bay City and Fremont route, and the 
"old Columbia receded." The Sky Lark continued to make 
bi-daiiy trips each season, until the summer of 1866. when she 
was sold to western parties and taken off the route, and the 
steamer Huron, Oapt. D. Cole, run in the Sky Lark's place 
during the remainder of the season. In 1867, the steamer Al- 
pena, Capt. John Robeson, run on the route between Detroit 
and Alpena, making regular trips ; and the Huron, Capt. D. 
Cole, run with the Genesee Chief, on the Bay City route. Dur- 
ing the yeara 1867 and 1868, the harbor of Alpena had been so 
much improved by piei-s and dredging, that steamers could en- 
ter the river, and in 1868, a new impulse was given to mill 
building in Alpena, and consequently a large increase of freight 
for that place, as well as a corresponding increase along the 
shore. In the spring of 1868, the steamer Huron, Capt. D, 
Cole, started on the Bay City and Alpena route, and in July, 
the steamer Geo. W. Reynolds, Capt. Benj. Boutell, run with 
the HoroD, on the same route. On the 4th day of July, the 

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steamer Metropolis made her first visit to Alpena, and run on 
t!ie route the remainder of the season. The Marine City run 
tliie season, on the shore route, from Detroit to Alpena, in place 
of the Alpena, and extended her trips to Mackinac Islaud. In 

1869, the steamer Metropolis, Capt. Cole, run on the Bay City 
route, and the Marine City, Capt. John Robeson, run from De- 
troit to Mackinac. Business having largely increased in Al- 
pena and on the bay shore, in 1870, the Metropolis, Capt. Cole, 
started on the Bay City route in the sprin^f, and in October, 
the steamer Sandusky, Capt McGregor, was placed on the same 
route; and the Marine City, Capt. John Robeson, run on the 
shore, from Detroit to Mackinac. In 1871 and 1872, the 
steamer Sandusky, Capt. John Stewart, run on the Bay City 
route; and in 1872, the steamer Lake Breeze, Capt. Lathrop, 
run with the Sandusky, on the same route; and the Marine 
City, Capt. John Hobesou, continued to run from Detroit to 
Mackinac, and the propeller Galena. Capt. Broadbridge, made 
regular trips from Cleveland to Alpena. About the middle of 
the season of 1873, the steamer DunJap, Capt. .Brown, and the 
steamer John Sherman, Capt. John Stewart, were placed on the 
Bay City route, the Dunlap continuing on the route until after 

1870. She was sailed in 1874, by Capt. Snow, and in 1875 and 
187G by Capt. A. G. Ripley; and the Sherman, Capt. Stewart, 
run with the Dunlap in 1874. In 1875 and 1876, the steamer 
Dove, Capt. Knowlton, run with the Dunlap on the Bay City 
route, and the Marine City, Capt. John Robeson, continued to 
run on the shore route, between Detroit and Mackinac Island. 
In the meantime, the propellers Wenoua, Capt. L. R. Boynton, 
and the Galena, Capt. Broadbridge, run from Alpena to Cleve- 

By Roads. — The first meeting of the Highway Commission- 
ers took place at the house of Daniel Carter, on March 26th, 
1858, and. "On motion of D. D. Oliver, it was voted to form 
two road districts; 

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"Road District No. 1, to be bomitled as follows: Comnoene- 
iiig on Thunder Bay, where the east and west center line of 
town 30 north, of range 8 e^t, intersects the bay; thence west, 
to range line between ranges 7 and 8 ; thence north, to town 
line between 31 and 32; theuce east, to range line between 
ranges 8 and 9 ; thence south, to Thunder Bay ; thence on mar- 
gin of bay, to the place of beginning. 

"Koad District No. 2, to be bounded as follows: North by 
Road District No. 1; thence east by Thunder B^y, to the town 
line between towns '28 and 29 ; thence west to range line be- 
tween towns 7 and 8, and thence north, to the south boundary 
of District No. 1." 

At the second meeting of the Highway Commissioners, which 
soon followed the first, a petition, signed by Joseph K. Miller, 
Addison F. Fletcher, David Plough, Daniel Carter, Moses Bing- 
ham, Abram Hopper, James S. Irwin, Lewis Atkins and David 
D. Oliver, was presented to the board, to lay out and estab- 
lish a road, "commencing near the mouth of Thunder Bay river, 
and thence by the most feasible route to the mouth of Devil 
river," this being the the first township road surveyed in the 
county. The petition was accepted, and the county surveyor 
was requested to make the necessary survey of the road. 

At the spring election of 1859, a motion was made by the 
electors, and carried, and the following was placed upon the 
records: "Voted to raise the sum of one hundred dollars, ac- 
cording to the report of the Highway Commissioners, for the 
purpose of surveying and establishing a road from the mouth 
of Thunder Bay river to Devil river," 

The records do not show that any one waa authorized to levy 
and collect the tax, but nevertheless the tax was levied and col- 
lected, as the same has been done many times in towns where 
their organizations were much older than Fremont. The writ- 
er made the necessary survey of the road the same season, but 
too late in the fall to do any work on the road. 

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The first highway tax roll was made in 1858, by Lewis At- 
kins, township clerk, for Boad District tJo. 2. Only four par- 
ties appear on the roll, subject to road tax, ns follows: 
Page and Oliver, taxed 112 days, 4 hours, 
David D, Oliver, taxed 1 day, 7 boars. 
Andrew Horn, taxed 5 days. 6 hours- 
Jolin Dawson, taxed 1 day, 3 houra 
The highway tax roll of District No. 1, the writer has not 
been able to obtain. 

The people all along the Lake Huron shore, and especially 
those at Fremont, were very anxioas to have a road opened be- 
tween Bay City and Fremont. Indeed this road had become 
a necessity, and a petition was drawn up and signed by nearly 
all on the shore, and presented to the State Legislature, who, 
iu 1859, passed the following act: 

Sec 1. The People of the State of Michigan enact. That 
Daniel Carter, of Fremont, C. C. Chilson, of Bay county, D. 
D. Oliver, of Devil river, Allen Terry, of AuSable, and Charles 
H, Whittemore, of Tawas Citj', be and the same are hereby 
appointed commissioneiff to lay out and establish a state road, 
from Saginaw City, in the county of Saginaw, to Cheboygan, 
in the county of Cheboygan, f«uchiug at Tawas City, AuSable, 
and Fremont, on Thunder Bay. 

Sec. 2. For the purpose of the further construction and im- 
provement of said road, there is hereby appropriated all the 
non-resident highway taxes, not otherwise appropriated by 
law for State roads, within six miles of the line of said road, 
on each side thereof, for the year 1859, and for five years there- 

The act also provided that the Highwaj- Commi'tsioners, of 
each township, through which the road should pass, should 
adopt and work the same, and it also provided that "said com- 
missioners" should receive the large sum of "one dollai and fifty 

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cents per day, for each day they were so engaged in laying out 
said road." 

Soon after the eommissioners had received notice of their 
appointment, a meeting of the commissioners was called to 
meet at Tawas Citj', that being the central point. The only 
way to reach that place from Premoot, was either to foot it 
down the shore or go in a small boat. Accordingly Messrs. 
Carter, of Fremont, and Oliver, of Devil river, two days before 
the meeting was to take place, started for Tawas City, in th^ 
said small boat. They reached the place of meeting, in good 
time and found all the newly appointed commissioners on hand, 
excepting C. C. Chilson, of Bay county, who had but little in- 
terest in the road. The commissioners met and, after thorough- 
ly discussing the matter, and considering the great wisdom 
and munificence of the Legislature in passing the act, came to 
the conclusion that there would not lie money enough collected 
during the said five years, to keep a brushed road that length 
in repair, after it had been laid out and made, as at that time 
but little land had been purchased along the line of the pro- 
posed road, and after voting the enterprise a failure, tliey ad- 
journed sine die. 

Thus ended the first effort for a road from the Saginaws to 
Alpena. After a week spent in this useless effort, Carter and 
Oliver returned, having spent their time and money, for which 
they could not expect any remuneration, except the conscious- 
ness of having faithfully discharged the duties imposed upon 
them by the people, and the imposition imposed upon the peo- 
ple by the Legislature. 

The subject of a State road, from Bay City to Cheboygan, 
was not dropped, but the subject continued to be agitated until, 
in 1861, the State Legislature passed a large bundle of bills 
for making State roads, aud among them was the following: 

Sec. 1. The Peoph of the Stale of Michigan enact, There 
shall be laid out and established, by commissionei's to be ap- 

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pointed by tbe Governor, upon the most direct and eligible 
route, between the places hereinafter designated, the following 
State roads: (The 22d in the list is) a road fi-om Duncan, in 
Cheboygan county, to AuSable river, in Iosco county, via AU 
pena, to be known as the Duncan, AJpena and AuSable River 
State Koad. 

Sec, 3, To secure the construptiou of said road, there is here. 
by appropriated an average amount of six hundred and forty 
acres of State swamp land to the mile." * * * 

David Plough, of Alpena, was appointed commissioner oii 
the Duncan, Alpena and AuSable State Eoad. No provision 
having been made, by the Legislature, for laying out this road; 
excepting the lands, tbe Board of Supervisors met and passed 
an order, to accept lands of the State of Michigan, for the 
benefit of the county, and issue road orders, provided they 
would be accepted, for making the survey of the road, in lieu 
of the land, 'and they authorized the commissioner to make a 
contract nceordingly, and in April, 1862, he made a contract 
with the writer to make a survey of the road, for the sura of 
five dollars per mile, payable in county orders, or lands, at the 
option of the surveyoi-s. The road was to be surveyed under 
the supervision of the commissioner, the writer furnishing, all 
things needed for the work. 

On the 31st of May. 1862, the writer commenced the survey 
of the road at AuSable river. His party consisted of David 
Plough, commissioner, and Dauiel Carter looking out the most 
feasible route for the road; A. J. A. Micholowski and Frank Trow- 
bridge, for chainmeu; John King and Isaac Isaacson, for packv 
ers; Robert Newell, for asman, and Elijah Degroat, for cook. 

The survey was made in due time, and the report accepted 
by the Board of Control, at Lansing, in the fall of 18G2. In 
July, 1803, the first contracts were made for the work on the 
road. The largest conti-actors on the road were 8. 0. Harris 
and J. B. Eabcock. 

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Mr. Plough remaineil commissioner for a immber of years, 
and was variously piaised and blamed, as interest or prejudice 
prompted, but be was honest, and failed to make money out of 
the road, when he could have seen "millions in it." Here 
the speculative ideas o£ Plough and Oliver were at fault, tor 
the extensive knowledge that Oliver had at that time of pine 
lands, and the extensive influence and power exercised by the 
Commissioner of State Lands, in letting and accepting con- 
tracts, would have made the business extensively profitable; 
but all this passed like a panorama, with but little thought, if 
any, in that direction, and so the wisdom, that comes after the 
fact, is worthless. 

A short time prior to the survey of the Duncan, Alpena and 
AuSe.ble State Road, a State road had been made from East 
Saginaw to AuSable river, called the East Saginaw and Au- 
Sable State Road, but was only passable for teams in the win- 
ter, on account of the condition of the AuGres swamps, and it 
was, after repeated efforts and appropriations of swamp lands, 
that it became passable in the summer season. The road, from 
the AiiSable to Alpena, was finished during the summer of 
1804, and that winter a stage line was run by Daniel Carter, 
between Alpena and Bay City, and the people rejoiced that 
they had a way out of the woods during the winter. 

In order to carry the mail, Mr. Carter, in 1863, run teams 
between Alpena and Bay City, by traveling sometimes in a 
bushed road, and sometimes on the ice, on the lake shore, but 
this way of traveling was risky and disagreeable. 

The Legislature had failed to connect the two roads, by one- 
half mile of road, and a bridge across the AuSable river. 

In the winter of 1866 and 1867, through the Hon. J. K. 
Lockwood, an appropriation of swamp lands was made for the 
improvement of the road, and for building a bridge across the 
AuSable river, and in 1867, the connection of the roads was 
made by a bridge across the river. The road, from Alpena 
toward Duncan, was continued to be made slowly, and in 1865, 

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Daniel Carter built a bridge across Thunder Bay river, on the 
contract of G. N. Fletcher. It was many years before this 
road was finished to Duncan, and indeed, in 1870, it is not jjass- 
able for teams, the whole length, in the summer. 

From the organization of the township, to 1870, most of the 
proceeds of the road tax was expended on the streets of Fre- 
mont. A bridge had been made, in 1805, aeruss Thunder Bay 
river, connecting Dock and Second streets, and paid for froni 
the proceeds of the road tax. It was a poor experiment, and 
soon went to decay. A road had been surveyed and cut out 
for a bush road, on the west side of the river, from Fremont 
to the Broadwell mill, at the rapids, and some work had been 
done, on what is known in 1870, as the section line roail. 

When the Duncan, Alpena and AuSable State Road was sur- 
veyed, it was carried in a direct route from the town line, near 
Greenbush, in Alcona county, to Ossineke, in Alpena county, 
and passed west of Harrisville and Black Eiver. It was sur- 
veyed there instead of following the lake shore, through the 
instance of S. O. Harris, who compromised with the commis- 
sioner, and paid the writer thirty dollars for backing up on his 
line, from Harrisville to Greeiibush. What his object was, 
the writer was not informed. 

The people along the shore still needed a road, and, in 1865, 
an appropriation of swamp land was made for a State road from 
Ossineke to Harrisville, following the shore to South Point and 
Black Eiver, and late in the fall of 1860, the road was opened 
for winter travel. Obed Smith was the principal contractor 
and builder of this road. 

On the 3d of May, 18Gi), a meeting of the citizens of Alpena 
was called, for the purpose of taking into consideration the 
condition of the old bridge. At this meeting the Highway 
Commissioners were requested to examine the bridge and re- 
port at the next meeting. On the 15th of May, the commis- 
sioners, D. Carter, Thos. Murray and Samuel Boggs, made 
their report, aud the following resolution was passed: "Ee- 

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solved, That a uew bridge be built by tax, ou the present site 
of tlie old oue, and to be finished by the first of May next." 

A ;motiou was also made and carried, requesting the Board 
of Supervisors to call a meeting and take the necessary steps 
to build a county bridge. J. K. Lockwood, Chairman; A. 
Hopper, Clerk. 

This meeting had the desired effect, and during the winter 
of 1869 and 1870, a good and substantial wooden bridge was 
placed over the stream, connecting Dock and Second streets. 
This bridge is good in 1870. 

For several years, during the winters, much talk and agita- 
tion was had by the people of Alpena, and those along the 
bay shore, in regard to a railroad along the sht)re, to Alpena, 
but was always dropped during the summer. 

In January, 1875, quite an impulse was given to the 
railroad agitators by a man of the name of Jefferds, who pro- 
posed to build a railroad, from Alpena, direct to Sterling, ou 
the Saginaw and Mackinaw road, and the spring opened with 
a fair prospect of a railroad to Alpena, and made quite a stir 
for a short time. 

The road was surveyed, and grounds cleared for a site, for 
work shops, an<l an engine house, and some of the road cleared 
and graded. 

Had the people of Alpena "boosted" the enterprise a little, 
as much as they will have to do, in all probability, when 
they get a road, they would have had one this summer, but 
they had lapsed into their usual summer complaint, and Mr. 
Jefferds not being able to build the road, it was abandoned. 

In the winter of 1875, five sections of swamp lands were 
given by the State, to build a State road, from Alpena to Long 
Lake, and called the Long Lake State Road. The five sec- 
tions of land, being insufficient to build the road, it being six 
and one-half miles long, a sum of S700 was raised by the people 
for that purpose, and in' July, of the same year, a contract kas 
made for building the road, and in 1870, the road is being made! 

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Schools. — As soou as practicable after the township meet- 
ing, held oil th« oth day of April, 1858, the School Inspectors 
of the township of Fremont, met for the purpose of forming a 
school district, and as much territory as could be allowed hy 
law, was incorporated into School District No, 1. Soon after 
this, a school meeting was called, and Addison F. Fletcher was 
elected the first School Director. Miss Mary L. Carter was 
hired to leach the first school, and after being inspected, com- 
menced teaching, in a small cooper shop, made o£ rough boards, 
which was then the best building that could be procured for a 
school house, and which stood on lot 10, In block 3, of the vil- 
lage plot. The writer has not been able to find a record of tliis 

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school, and thinks that no record was kept. The second school 
was commeuced on the 23d day of May, 1859, and ended on 
the 20tb of August of the same year. The report is aa followe: 

Number of days taught, 6y 

Number sc-holars enrolled, 28 

AVhole number days attendance, 1,246 

Average attendance, 18 4-69 


Accepte.i Aug. SOtli, 1859. 


Director of School District No. 1. 
This school was taught in an upper room in what is now call- 
ed the Myers block, on the corner o^ Second and Water streets, 
on lot 13, in block 3, of the village plot. Tliis building was 
completed in the fall and winter of 1858. The first floor was 
used as a storehouse, and the second was used for county and 
other purposes, viz: Circuit Court room and county offices, 
school room, church. Sabbath school, printing office, and all 
public gatherings. We give below the names and ages of the 
scholars attending this school, as being of some importance, 
should the record be preserved for the next Centennial year, 
and may be interesting to some of the present generation: 


Age. Name. 


Arthur Irwin, 

12 Andrew Trembly, 


William Irwin, 

10 ManiJva Smith, 

Edgar Sellick, 

7 John Persons, 


Helen SelHck, 

11 George Plough, 


Frances Sellick, 

9 Elizabeth Creley, 

Addie Sellick, 

6 Mary Ann Creley, 


Harriet Erwin, 

13 Margaret Boggs, 


Elizabeth Erwin, 

n Elizabeth Sprague, 


Jane Erwin, 

15 Henry Sprague, 


Alice Erwin, 

10 Francis Hortwick, 


John Barnes, 

13 George Nicholson, 


William Barnes, 

9 Edith Clark, 


Charles Bingham, 

10 Christina Boggs. 


Catherine Archibald, 

11 William Boggs, 


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The first male teacher was M. E. Clark, who taught only 
twenty-two daya, ending September 22d, 1859. David Plough, 

Soon after the Bev, C G. Bisbee came to Alpena, in 1860, 
he was hired to teach the school, but be made no report until 
the 27th of February, 1862, when the number of scholara en- 
rolled was fifty-one, doubling in two-and-a-half years. Follow- 
ing Mr. Bisbee, as the next school teacher, was Leroy Buudy, 
who only taught forly-eight days. In 1863, tbe school was 
taught by C. P. Butler, who had an average attendance of 
twenty-five scholars during the summer term. The winter 
term ended April 29th, 1864, and was a full term, with an av- 
erage attendance of twenty-two scholars. The report is made, 
but not signed. Miss Kate Barclay taught the summer term of 
1864, but made no report. 

In 1863 and 1864, the first district school house was erected 
in the county. It was located on lot 2, in block 20, of the vil- 
lage of Fremont, and was the construction of Samuel Boggs, 
J. B. Tuttle taught the first school in this house, and conse- 
quently was the first teacher who taught in a district school 
house in Alpena county. His report is as follows: 

Report of a term o£ the public school, taught in District No. 
1, of Alpena village, Alpena county, Michigan, during the win- 
ter and spring of 1864 and 186C. School began Jan. 3d, 1365. 
School closed April 1st, 1805, 

Number of days taught, 71 

Number of scholars enrolled, 94 

Number of days attendance, 4,047 

Average daily attendance, 57 

Signed, J. B. TUTTLE. 

Dated at Alpena, April 1st, 1865. 

This report shows a rapid increase of scholars, and a corres- 
ponding increase of inhabitants in Alpena county, more than 
doubling in two years. 

In 18Go, another district school house was erected, on the 

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east side of the river, aud a school taught there. The large in- 
crease o£ population rendered it necessary to have more school 
room, and the School Board, deeming it advisable to erect a 
Union School house, took the necessary ateps in that dirtction, 
aud in 1867, the Legislature authorized t!ie building of a Uii- 
ion School house, by the following act: 
An act to authorize the formation of Union School District 

Number One, of the township of Alpena, iu the county of 


Sec. 1. The People of the Stale of Michigan enact, That the 
School luBpectors of the township of Alpeaa, in the county of 
Alpeua, are hereby authorized to organize the said township of 
Alpena, or so much thereof as they may deem necessary, into 
a school district, to be known as Union School District Number 
One, of said township. 

Sec. 2. Said school distnct shall be organizwi according to 
the provisions of the school laws of the State, and all moneys 
lawfully voted to be raised in said district, by tax or loan, shall 
be a valid debt against ail the property in said district. 

Sec. 3. This act shall take immediate effect. 

Approved March 27th, 1867. 

Soon after the passage of the preceding act, bonds were is- 
sued and negotiated, and the necessary funds raised for the con- 
struction of a Union School house, and in 1808, a suitable 
building was erected, under the supervision of Davit] Plough, 
as dii'ected by the School Board. 

The building was located on grounds, donated to the town- 
ship, for school purposes, bj' S, E. Hitchcock, and it cost, in 
round numbers, the sum of $20,000, when finished, furnished, 
and the ground cleared off and fenced. 

IVheu first built, it was on the margin of the forest, on the 
west, isolated, and in a swamp. 

Noble M. Brackinreed taught the distnct school, on the 
southwest side of the river, after J. B. Tuttle, until the Union 

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School house was finished, when he was transferred to it, as 
principal teacher. 

Charles T. Brockway was engaged as the first Superintend- 
ent, and in November, 1809, the Union School commenced its 
regular operations, under his supervision. Mrs. Sutton, Mrs. 
Stevens, Mrs. Vanlnwegen, Miss Doaue and Miss Barclay were 
engaged as teachers. They were inspected by Messrs. Com- 
stoclt and Barlow. 

The school was divided into four grades — the primary, 
secondary, senior and junior. Each grade was divided into 
two classes, called the A and B class, excepting the senior 
grade, which was divided info three classes, the highest of 
which pursue the higher English branches, and is in every 
respect a High School grade. Scholars were taken into the 
school at the age of sis years. 

F, S, Dewey succeeded Mr. Brockway, as Superintendent, 
in 1871 or 1S72, for he says in his report of 1874-. "In 1872, 
or two years ago, I changed the course of study." He divided 
the school into five grades, of two years each, primary, second- 
ary, intermediate, grammar and high school. It now takes 
ten years to go through the course. Mr. Dewey is Superin- 
tendent in 1876. 

The writer has given the names of the teachers, in the Union 
School, as reported in 1871, with their salaries, showing the 
condition of the school, at this time. But little change from 
this was made in the school up to 1876. 

F. S. Dewey, principal, salary $1,400 per year. 

Miss H. S. Bachman, assistant principal and teacher of 
grammar school, salary 55COO per year. 

Miss L. J. Bachman, intermediate teacher, salary S300 per 

Miss Godfrey, secondary, salary $450 per year. 

Miss Ella Myers, secondary, salary $450 per yea]'. 

Miss Mary E. Smith, secondary, salary $45i) per year. 



Miss L. Rutherford, primary and secomUry, salary, §400 
per year. 

The whole number of pupils iu school was 374, and the 
number of scholars enrolled was as follows: Boys, 325; 
girls, '281. The number of seats in all the rooms was 450. 

In 1870, there is fourteen school districts in the county, and 
twelve district school houses. In the village is a Catholic 
school, a German school and a- Norwegian school. 

Journalism. — We are indebted to the proprietor of the Pion- 
eer for the following letter, written to him by D. E. Joslin, in 
regard to the history of the Alpenft County Pioneer. We give 
all of hia letter that is pertinent. Mr. JosHu says: "In the 
year 1862, I was publishing a paper at Port Austin, in Huron 
county, called the Huron County Reporter. During the win- 
ter of 1862 and 1863, bearing of a commencement of a vil- 
lage, at the mouth of Thunder Bay river, and the fine prospects 
of a large and thriving village, not far in the future; the large 
amount of pine lands on the river and its branches, and the 
large amount of lands, which appeared upon the tax rolls, and 
not satisfied with the prospects of Port Austin, I was induced 
to correspond and learn the prospects of locating a paper at 
Alpena. Accordingly 1 corresponded with O. T. B. Williams, 
the Prosecuting Attorney. He took an immediate interest to 
encourage the enterprise, and so did all the people of the vil- 
lage, which, at thai time, contained about 250 inhabitants, and 
according to their means, subscribed a liberal donation of $200 
to aid in establishing the paper. Accordingly, about the 26th 
of April, 1863, on Sunday, I arrived with my printing office, 
at Alpena, on the Forest Queen, which anchored out in the 
baj-. Freight was loaded on scows and poled in. The print- 
ing office was landed off the scow, on Miller's dock, Sunday, 
and procuring a room over Miller's store, now the Myers 
block, and commenced immediately to set up the office, and in 
order to secure the tax printing, must issue by the 1st day of 

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May, which, by working day and uight, with oue haud, issued 
on the last clay of April, a twenty column paper, having five 
columns per page, of 17^ inches a column, of which twelve 
columns were reading matter, called the Thunder Bay Monitor. 
It was hailed with great satisfaction and well patronized. The 
issue of the first year was about 150 copies, which was very 
large, according to the population, for at that time, there were 
only two milk in the place— Messrs. Lockwood & Minor's, on 
Water street, and the Island mill — the Chamberlain mill just 
burned. One dry goods store, Mr. Hardwiek's. Messrs. 
Lockwood & Minor kept a few things, but could hardly be 
called a store. Mr. Miller kept a small grocery store. Mr. 
Bingham kept the only hotel, a small two story wood building, 
on the north side o£ the river, which had to be reached from 
the south by a boat, if one could be found, if not, go over on a 
saw log, or stay where you were. These composed the busi- 
ness places of the town; therefore the paper was almost desti- 
tute of home advertisements, so we had to look abroad for 
advertisements to fill up, many of which were of little profit. 
The tax list, which was large, was a great relief to the expenses. 
The next year, three other mills were built, and a number of 
stores and hotels, having double the population and business, 
and gave the advertising columns a much better appearance, 
and helped greatly to its support. I continued to publish the 
paper nntil the fall of 1S65. Being so unfortunate as to lose 
my wife, causing a derangement in my business, in the month 
of November. 1805, I sold the office to D. D. Oliver. Mr. Oli- 
ver immediately installed J. A. Case as editor, and J. Hons- 
burger as publisher. Some time in the spring of 1860, Mr. 
Oliver changed the name of the paper to the Aipena County 
Pioneer, which has continued since." In 1867. Oliver sold a 
half interest in the paper to Robert S. ToJand, and the paper 
was conducted under the firm name of Oliver & Tolaud. Find- 
ing the paper too small for the growing business of the town, 

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Oliver, through tho direction o£ Toland, enlarged it to a twen- 
ty-four column paper, being 24k16. Oliver resided tvt Ossi- 
neke. and having business ther«, could not see to the manage- 
ment of the office, and cousequently the business run behind 
expenses about five huudred dollars, up to the spring of 1868, 
J. K. Lockwood and Oliver v/ere very anxious to have the paper 
live a Republican, and after some talk in regard to the matter, 
Oliver sold his interest in the office to Lockwood, at a certain 
price, with conditions that Toland should have the same chance 
with him as he had with Oliver, and that George McFadden, 
who was employed in the office, should have the privilege 
of buying the half interest in the office, if he should so elect, 
at the same price that Lockwood purchased of Oliver, it being 
the object of Lockwood and Oliver to make the business live. 
In 18(38, we find the Pioneer published by Toland & McFadden. 
Had these young men taken the advice of Oliver and Lock- 
wood, and had been more persevering and economical, they 
might have had, at the Centennial year, a good property, a suc- 
cessful business, and an honorable standing among the citizens 
of Alpena. But they could not see what the result would be, 
and in Juur, 1808, McFadden turned over to Lockwood, his in- 
terest in the Pioneer office, and for a short time, the business 
was run in the name of Lockwood & Toland. In November, 
1868, Lockwood & Toland sold the Pioneer office to Albert C. 
Tefft. Mr. Tefft was not a practical printer, and says, in an 
issue of his paper, in February, 1871: "Not being a practical 
printer, we have had some bad luck in not presenting so 'clean' 
a sheet as we wished sometimes." Mr. Tefft purchased the 
business to keep, and by industry, economy and good manage- 
ment, has made it a success, when practical printers had failed, 
and as a reminder of this fact, Mr. Tefft says, in an issue of 
his paper nf the 22d of February, 1871: "Two years ago, 
when we first took charge of the Pioneer, its proprietors in- 
formed us that it had never been a paying institution, but that 

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each succeeding owuer bad lost monoy in trying to sustain it." 
In September, 1871, Mr. Tefft enlarged it to a nine column 
paper, of 24x30, and put a new head on it, making it a large 
and respectable paper, and which was a true index of the growth 
of Alpena. A second paper was started in Alpena, in June, 
1871, owned and edited by J. C Viall, and called the AlpenR 
Weekly Argus. It is Democratic iu politics, and a champion 
worthy the steel of the Pioneer, and will have a tendency to 
arouse the Republican proclivities o£ the editor who has had 
his own way so long that his Republicanism was becoming ego- 
tistical. The Argus office and its contents were completely de- 
stroyed in the great fire of July 12th, 1812. He had no in- 
surance, but the people, with their usual generosity, soon help- 
ed the editor to renew his paper, and in 1870, it is a successful 
and important institution of the city. 

Sabbath Schools and Churche.s, — Soon after J. K. Miller 
came to Fremont, he commenced to teach a Bible class on the 
Sabbath, at the house of Daniel Carter. The class consisted of 
only five persons, being the children of James S. Irwin and Cy- 
rus Erwin. In the spring of 1860, the first Sabbath school 
was organized, with J. K. Lockwood as superintendent; "W. H. 
Potter, treasurer and librarian, and A. Hopper, secretarj\ In 
the summer of the same year, the Rev. C. G. Bisbee came to 
Fremont, and soon after took charge of the Sabbath school, as 
superintendent. Mr. Bisbee was a man of considerable talent; 
was well educated, but not a good orator. He was a good man, 
kind and obliging, and won the love and regard of all who 
knew him ; and no one ever left the place with more well-wishes 
than the first minister of Alpena. He was industrious, and 
taught school for two years after he came to Fremont, partly 
for his siip[>ort, as the then newly organized church did not 
feel able to wholly employ and pay a minister. He held preach- 
ing services and Sabbath school in the first room over the store 
now occupied by J. Myers, on the corner of Second and Water 

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streets. As soon as Deaeou Hitchcock bad finished the court 
house, the church and Sunday school were held in it, and Mr. 
Bisbee continued superintendent until he went away, in the 
spring o£ 1865, when Deacon H. Hyatt was elected in his place. 
Mr. Hyatt was followed as superintendent, in the spring of 
1S60, by Rev. W. D. Kussell, who left Fremont in September 
of the same year, when "Wm. D. Hitchcock, the present super- 
intendent, in 187G, was elected. Mr. Hitchcock has done much 
to elevate and systemize the school, and bring it up to a high 
standard of excellence, and has succeeded in gaining the affec- 
tionate regard of tiie children of his school; and will be remem- 
bered kindly by the coming generation, when those who occupy 
higher positions will be forgotten. There is another name that 
has taken high tank in the annals of the first Sabbath school, 
and in the remembrances of the children, and which deserves 
honorable mention in this connection — Julia F. Farwell. She 
has always taken a lively interest in the school, and done much 
for its advancement. She always had charge of the class called 
the "Birds' Nest," being a large class of smaH scholars, and 
with her received elementary teachings. In 1860, the whole 
number of scholars in attendance was twenty-five. In 1866, 
the scholars had increased to 126. In this year, the Episcopal 
Sabbath school was organized, and in 1867, the Methodist, 
Baptist and Catholic schools were organized, all of which drew 
more or less scholars from the old school; yet, in 1875, the 
scholars had increased to 193, divided into twenty-seven classes. 
This school belongs to the First Congregational church, and is 
held in the church, being the first and largest school in Alpena. 
The officers, in 1876, are as follows: Wm. D. Hitchcock, su- 
perintendent; T. M. Luce, assistant superintendent; Belden W. 
Smith, secretary; John T>. Potter, treasurer; Eugene Motley, 
James Johnston and Charles Watrous, librarians; Henry 8. 
Seage, George Nicholson, Mrs. W. H. Potter and Nannie Per- 
son, choir, and Mrs. F. H. Armstrong, organist. 

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Church Organization. — On the 2d o£ March, 1862, an or- 
ganization was eiTected, under the name and style of "The 
First Congregational Church, o£ Alpena." The organic mem- 
bers were as follows: C. G. Bisbee, S. E. Hitchcock, 8aman- 
tha Hitchcock, Julia F. Facw«ll, Elizabeth Moouey, Emily H. 
Plough, B. C. Hardwick and Lydia J. Martin. The Rev. C. 
G. Bisbee was the first pastor, and held church iu the upper 
room of a building, standing in 1876, on the corner of Second 
and Water streets, an<l now called tlie Sfyers block, and con- 
tinued to hold sftrvices there, until the court house was built, 
in 1863, on the corner of First and Washington streets, and 
was then adjourned to the court house, and the church and 
Sabbath school continued to be held in the court house, until 
their church was finished and dedicated, and then law and gos- 
pel, that had so long been in such fearful proximity, was sep- 

Gospel says: Steal not Law says: Steal by night and steal 
by day, but do it in a legal way. 

The church is a wooden structure, costing $8,000, and was 
built all the way from 1805 to 1868, and dedicated October 4th, 
1808. A bell was purchased in 1869, and placed in the chureh, 
at a cost of $420. The value of the property, in 1876, is about 


Soon after the Eev. C. G- Bisbee left the pastorate, his place 
was filled, for a short time, in ISOi and 1865, by the Eev. 
Thos. F. Hicks, and following him, the Rev. W. D. Russell 
filled the pulpit until 1800, when he left the place. During 
the year 1867, services were held by the Rev. D, C. White, 
and the Rev. F. N. Barlow, a Baptist minister. 

It must be borne iu mind that, up to about this time, it re- 
quired all the people in Fremont, without drawing any lines, 
to fill a church, "and they could hardly." 

In the latter part of 1867, the Rev. Eufns Apthorp .ac- 
cepted a call to the pastorate, and continued to officiate until 

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1870, when he was succeeded by the Ke.v. A. B. Allen, who 
fills the pastorate in 1876. 

Baptist Chubch.^ — On (he 15tSi day of October, 1867, steps 
were taken to organize the society, known as the First Bap- 
tist Society, oE Alpena. F. N. Barlow was the first minister. 
The organic members were as follows: P. M. Johnson, D. 
Carter, E. Harrington, C. L. Kimball, AV. M. Sutton and John 

Catholic Church. — In 1864, the Kev. Patrick Barnard 
Murray came to Alpena, in the interest of the Catholic church, 
and held services and attended to the needs of the Catholic- 
people, as beet be could without a church. In 1865, he pur- 
chased of David D. Oliver, all the land in Oliver's addition to 
the city of Alpena, east of Chieholm street, for S300, Oliver 
donating SlOO, for the purpose of buildiug a church, and in 
1866, the Rev. M'lrray succeeded in erecting a good and sub- 
stantial church, and was dedicated as the Saint Bernard church. 

In the Catholic church, the Bishop owns the church proper- 
ty in fee, and the presiding pastor or priest is president, sec- 
retary and treasurer of the local church. 

As soon as the church was finished, a Sabbath school was 
commenced, and in 1870, a week day school was commenced, 
having about 100 scholars. The Catholic churches count 
their members by families, and in 1876, Saint Bernard's church 
numbered about 300 families, and was presided over by the 
Rev. Father John Van Gennip. The schools, at this time, 
numbered 250 scholars in each, and taught by four teachers — ■ 
the Sisters of Charity. The value of the church property, in 
1876, is $10,000. If our dwellings in the spirit world are built 
up of the good deeds we do here to our fellow beings, and that 
each good deed is n separate piece of the structure, then we 
think that the Sisters own many of the best dwellings in tho 
summer land, and many people, when they arrive there, will 

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be surprised aud tiisgnsted at the shabbj' iookiug • dwellings 
they have erected. 

Episcopal Church. — This cburcli was orgaiiizeil on the 
first of February, 1805. The Rev. G. O. Bacliraan was the 
first rector, and held his first sei-vicfs on the 9th of July, 1865. 
He remained in charge of the church for eighteen mouths, and 
was relieved by the Rev. H. H. Bi-own, who remained in charge 
for six months, and was succeeded by the Rev. W. W. Rafter, 
in June, 18GS, and who is still rector of the cliurch, in 1870. 

Public LiBRAEY.^In the paper of 1808 and 1809, was a 
notice of a public library, kept at the residence of Chas. W. 
Richardson, and open to the reading public every Hafnrday. 
Mrs. S. A. Mathei', president; Mrs. H. R. Morse, secretary, 
and Mrs. C. W. Richardson, ti-easurer and librarian. It is 
said to have been organized in 1804, by four ladies, and called 
"TheLadies' Metropolitan Library." This was the first library, 
for public reading, in the village, and reflects mnch credit on 
the benevolent ladies, who got it up. Long will they be re- 

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Soon after the writer was elected Justice of tlie Peace, in 
1857, be purchased a justice docket and Tiffany's Justice Guide, 
being the first docket and law book used in the cotinty. At 
the spring election of 1858, Daniel Carter was elected Justice 
of the Peace, and the writer, having no desire to do any busi- 
ness in the justice line, turned over to Mr. Carter his docket 
and law book. 

Some time, during the summer of 1859, Leonard Jewell 
came into the river with a sail boat, having liquor on board, to 
Bell. As soon as he commenced to sell his liquor, J. K. Miller 
brought suit against him, before Daniel Carter. There were, 
at that time, no lawyers in the town, and Mr. Carter, very 
young in the business. However, it so happened that Obed 
Smith, who was then a Justice of the Peace, in St. Olair coun- 
ty, and who had some experience in law matters, was iu Fre- 
mont, OD a visit. So Mr. Smith, after instructing Mr. Carter, 
in regard to his duty as Justice of the Peace, then acted as 
counsel for Mr. Miller. The case was tried. It was proved 
that he had sold liquor unlawfully, and he was fined. The boat 
was anchored out in the stream, and the Constable had taken 
the rudder ashore, to prevent the boat leaving until they had 
got through with it. Jewell pretended that his money, to pay 
the fine, was on board the boat, and requested the privilege of 
going after his money, which was readily granted, supposing 
that he could not go away without his rudder, but what was 
their surprise, when they saw him sailing out of the river, 
steering his boat with an oar. There was no boat to chase him 
and bring him back, so they had to let him go, but he never 

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came back to sell liquor. This was the first law business 
transacted in the county. 

Under the constitution of 1850, the Judiciary was changed, 
making eight Circuit Judges, and each presiding over certain 
districts, called Judicial Circuits. This number was soon en- 
larged, and in 1857, Alpena was placed in the Tenth Judicial 
Circuit, which was composed of the following counties: Sagi- 
naw, Gratiot, Isabella, Midland, Iosco, Bay and Alpeija, with 
unorganized counties attached to them for judicial and muni- 
cipal purposes. Subsequently, the Circuit was changed, and 
in 1S7C, Alpena is placed in the 18th Judicial Circuit, com- 
posed of the counties of Bay, Iosco, Alcona, Alpena, Presque 
Isle and Otsego. 

The constitution of 1S50, also fised the salaries of all officers, 
and making the Circuit Judge's at $1,500 a year, a sum barely 
sufficient to pay the board and traveling expenses of some of 
tlie Judges in the northern counties, and they were compelled 
to seek relief through the several Boards of Supervisors, who, 
in order to do justice, which the Legislature had not done, 
they were compelled to violate the laws of the State, and be- 
come a law unto themselves. 

The first session of the Circuit Court was held in the 
Myers block, in October, 1860, and presided over by Judge 
Woodwortb. The court officers were: William E. Bowman, 
Sheritf, and Addison F. Fletcher, Clerk. Oliver T. B. Williams 
was the only resident lawyer. He had moved to Fremont, in 
the spring of 1860. He was a man of considerable ability, 
and in the fall of 1860, was electei.1 first Prosecuting Attorney. 

Judge Woodworth held but one or two sessions of court, 
and was succeeded by the Hon. James Biruey, who held but 
one session of court each year, until the fall of 1865, when 
the Honorable Jabez G. Sutherland was elected. Judge 
Sutherland held two sessions o£ court each year, until 1870, 
when he was elected to Congress, The Hon. T. C. Grier was 

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appointed to fill tiio vacancy, and held the May term for 1871. 
Judge Grier died before the time of holding another session 
of the court, and the Hon. Sanford M. Green was elected to 
fill the judffeahip, and who is the presiding Judge in 1876. 

AlpeDa has been very fortunate in her selection of Circuit 
Judges. All have been able lawyers, old and experienced ju- 
rists, and well headed. The court officei's, in 187ft, are: 

Thomas B. Johnston, Sheriff. 

John Thompson, Under Sheriff. 

George W. Jones, Deputy Sheriff. 

Charles N. Cornell, Clerk. 

Alexander McDonald, Deputy Clerk. 

Victor 0. Burnham, Prosecuting Attorney. 

A. M. Haynes, He porter. 

John H, Stevens, Circuit Court Commissioner. 

The Circuit Court continued to be held in the Myers block, 
until 1863, when the iirst session of the court was held in the, 
so-called, Hitchcock Court House, and all the county officers, 
and records, were moved there, and so remained, until 1870, 
when the building was destroyed by fire, and many of the re- 
cords and papers were burned. The court records, records of 
the Board of Supervisors, the records of marriages, deaths, 
naturalization, some as.sessment rolls, account books and vouch- 
ers. The court and offices were then removed to rooms over 
Potter Brothers' hardware store, where they remained until 
they again passed through the ordeal of fire, but this time 
without being scorched, as everything belonging to the court 
and records, were saved. The Court was then held in the 
Union School house, until the Potter block was finished, when 
the court and county offices were removed to rooms prepar'ed 
for them, over the hardware store of Potter Bros., where they 
remaiu in 1876. 

The following are the members of the Alpena bar, in 1876: 
Obed Smith, J. B. Tuttle, R J. Kelley, J. D. Turnbull, J. 

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D. Holmes, J. H. Stevens, V. 0. Burnham, A. R. McDotiaW. 

All survived the Ceiitennial year, excepting Obed Smitb, 
wbo died at his residence, in Alpena, on the 20th day of No- 
vember, 187(5. He was the oldest member of the bar, beiug 
RH octogenarian. He was admitted in 18C2. He was a Mason, 
in good standing, and was buried with Masonic honors — the 
Alpena bar attending his funeral in a bodj-. He was <me of 
the early settlers of Fremont, having built the first steam saw- 
mill in the county, in 1859. In 18G5, he built the first bridge 
aei-oss Thunder Bay river, between Dock and Second streets. 
He was active in business, temperate in habits, truthful in his 
expressions, and was just in his dealings with his fellow men. 

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The writer has given a list of the names appearing upon 
the first and original tax roll of the county, and tlie valu- 
ation of real estate and personal property, and the tax assess- 
ed to each person. There seems to be some mistakes in this 
roll, which the writer has been able to point out below, and a 
discrepancy between this roll and the first highway tax roll, 
which he cannot explain. 

Mr. Irwin, when he made the first assessment tax rolls, 
was inexperienced in township business. He had no prior 
rolls to look at, and no oue to instruct him in the matter, 
that was wiser than liimself. The propertj', to be assessed, 
was scattered from South Point to Middle Island, and the only 
way to reach it was by small boat, or foot it along an Indian 
trail along the lake beach. The value of real estate, ah! what 
was it worth? Any nominal sum that might be placed upon 
it. Under those circumstances, would it be anything strange 
to find some mistakes? It would be something unusual if 
there was not. 

Eeal estate. 


Ani'l of tax. 

D. D. OliTer, 

1.680 00 

496 00 

198 46 

George N. Fletcher, 


16 28 

J. K Lockwood, 1 

J. Oldfleld, 1 

W. A. Chisholm, f 

4,886 72 

211 10 

J. S, Minor, j 

Andrew Horn, 

1,909 45 

86 31 

Been & Evans, 

1,038 38 

247 00 

i)3 18 

.). J. Maiden, 

170 00 

6 86 

J. W. Paxtou, 

1)76 00 

40 42 

Daniel McDonald, 

534 00 

21 73 

John Cameron, 

268 00 

9 69 

Miller, Fletcher * Co., 

750 00 

29 60 

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Daniel Carter, 

225 00 

9 15 

Lewis Atliins, 

100 00 

4 07 

a. B. Melville, 

65 00 

2 01 

J. J. Shaw, 

115 00 

4 63 

a. N. rietoher, 

195 00 


Total of tax, $701 95 

It win be readily seen that the foregoing is incorrect, for the 
the tax was a fraction over four per cent, and the amount as- 
sessed to Oliver, at four per cent, would not be half the tax 
which is set op[)Osite his nami'. Been & Evans were not 
real estate owiiors, and Andrew Horn's real estate was valued, 
in 185S, at 8473.32, instead of $1,909.45, and Oliver was as- 
sessed for $4,513.75 real estate, and S49G personal property. 
Everything, in regard to personal property, is correct. Thts 
whole amount of tax, voted to be spruad upon the tax roll, for 
1858, was $889.62. 

For county purposes, $304.02. 

For township purposes, $425.00- 

For highway purposes, §100.00. 

The first disbursement, from the road tax, was to pay for 
surveying a road, fi-om near the mouth of Thunder Bay river 
to Devil river. The first disbursement of the county funds, 
was to pay J. K. Miller for making a transcript of the records 
of lands, from the counties of Mackinac and Cheboygan, which 
lands belong to Alpeua county, and were recorded in those 
counties, while Alpena was a part of their territory. 

The writer has given the valuation of property in Alpena 
county in 1858, and the amount of tax spread upon the tax roll, 
in order to show the financial condition of the county when it 
was organized. And now it may not be uninteresting to the 
reader to give the assessed valuation of property in the county 
in 1875, and the financial condition of the city in 187G, as a 
contrast, and showing the rapid growth of the county ; and also 
serving as a starting point for another Centennial, 

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At the ammal meeting, on October 11th, 1875, the Board of 
Supervisors equalized the real estate and personal property in 
the city of Alpeua and the several townships, subject to be tax- 
ed, as follows: 

City of Alpena, $788,270 00 

Township of Alpens, 100,000 00 

Township of Long Eapids, 300,000 00 

Township of Wilson, 299,256 00 

Township of Ossineke, 350,000 00 

A resolution was passed as follows: 

Resolved, That the several Supervisors of the connty of Al- 
pena, are hereby authorized and direcled, by the Board of Su- 
pervisors of Alpena county, to spread upon their assessment 
rolls for the year 1875, the following sums, and for the follow- 
ing purposes, to wit; 


For contingent expenses, S2,400 00 

For highway purposes, 1,490 28 


For contingent expenses, $4,092 48 

For highway purposes, 1,592 48 


For contingent expenses, S 400 00 

For highway purposes, 521 73 


For contingent expenses, $ (300 00 

For highway pui-poses, 2,880 00 

For school purposes, 700 00 
And it was also, 

Resolved, That the sevei-al amounts to be raise<l for State 
and county purposes, for the year 1875, in the several town- 
ships and city of Alpena, in the county of Alptna, be appor- 
tioned as follows, to wit: 

City of Alpena— State tax, S 32o 00 

County tax, 0,870 00 

Township of WilB:)n— State tax, 122 50 

County tax, 2,605 OO 

Township of Long Rapids— State tax, 123 00 

County lax, 2,015 00 

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Township of Alpena — State tas, 41 00 

County tax, ■ 875 00 

Township o£ Ossiiieke — State tax, 143 39 

County tax, 3,035 00 

These resolutions were adopted by the fallowing vot«: Ayes, 
Bedford, Lewis, Louden, Phelps, Spratt, Tunibull, White and 
Brackinreed. Nays, none. Coruell, Clerk of Board. 

lu March, 1876, the Comptroller and Treasurer of the city 
of Alpena, made a report to the Mayor and Common Council, 
as follows: 

From the Comptroller. 

Gentlemen;— I would most resjwctfully submit the follow- 
ing report, in reference to the finances of said city, for the 
present fiscal year, beginning April 1st, 1875, up to March 20th, 

Outstanding contingent orders, April 1, 1875, $ 901 61 

Contingent orders issued since, 8,697 45 

Outstanding fire orders, April 1, 187'"», 406 76 

Fire orders issued since, 2,250 47 

Outstanding police orders. April 1, 1875, 345 38 

Police orders issued since, 1,007 60 

Outstanding street orders, April 1, 1875. 195 95 

Street orders issued since, 2,807 08 

Ontstandiug bridge orders, April 1, 1875, 34 40 

Bridge orders isBued since, 721 15 

Outstanding engine bonds, 2,000 00 

Coupons on above, 300 00 

Interest on coupons, 24 66 

Interest on orders redeemed, 310 53 

Total, S20,002 92 

Contingent orders redeemed to date, ^7,557 10 

Contingent orders now outstanding, 2,057 68 

Fire orders redeemed to date, 2,322 47 

Fire orders now outstanding, 324 74 

Police orders redeemed to date, 1,262 88 

Police orders now outstanding, 90 00 

Bridge orders redeemed to date, ' 745 35 

Bridge orders now outstanding, 10 15 

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172 FINANCUr.. 

street orders redeemed to date, 2,759 03 

Street ctrders now outstanding, 244 00 

Engine bonds redeemed to date, 1,000 00 

Engine bonds now outstanding, 1,000 00 

Engine coupons redeemed to date, 200 00 

Engine coupons now outstanding, 100 00 

Intei-est on coupons, 24 6f> 

Interest paid on city orders redeemed, 310 53 



Contingent oi-ders outstanding to date. 
Fire orders outstanding to date, 
Police orders outstanding to date. 
Bridge orders outstanding to date, 
Street orders outstanding to date. 
Engine bonds outstanding to date. 
Coupons outstanding to date, 

Total outstanding orders, bonds, etf., $3,82(i 85 

Amount due from county to city. 3,998 21 

Signed, J. D. TURNBULL. Comptroller. 

CHARLES B. WREELT, Trejtsnrer. 

These figures siiow well for the finiuicial condition of the 
city, for the Centennial year. 

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In ttie Spring of 1851), the first marriage was eelebratetl in 
Alpena county. Miss Mar)' L. Carter being the first young 
lady that had come to the county as a permanent resident, a.s- 
sumed the right to be the first married; and in harmony with 
previous arrangements, it was recorded: ''Man-ied, March 
10th, 1850, at the residence of the bride's mother, by David D. 
Oliver, Esq., Justice of the Peace, George B. Melville to Mary 
L. Carter, both of Fremont." 

The record of marriages was burned in the court house, in 
in 1870. and not having any more of the records in his posses- 
sion, the writer will not be able to notice any more of the early 
marriages of Fremont. The records kept since the fire, shows 
that, from February 11th, 1871, to June 1st, 187C), two hun- 
dred and forty-four marriages, three hundred and sixty-seven 
births, and one hundred and ten deaths have been recorded. 


Temperance, ^This subject involves the feelings of so many 
persons now living in Alpena, that a full discussion of the sub- 
ject cannot be had; and thu writer would omit the subject en- 
tirely, did it not play so conspicuous a part in the early settle- 
ment of the county; for he would find it extremely difficult to 
use the truth so sparingly as not to contradict the conceived 
ideas of some, and not offend others. Almost every town, 
when new, has had its "roughs," and "spreeiug" time, and Fre- 
mont was not an exception. Pontiac, Oakland county, Michi- 
gan, was noted, in its early days, tor its "spreeing," and a face- 
tious gentleman, well known there in 1840, by the cognomen 
of "Salt Williams," who said he "had an altercation with a 

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man, and told tiim to go to ]i — 1 or Poiitiac, and the great fool 
went to Pontiao." Fortunately most of the proprietors and 
early settlers of Fremont were temperate people, and opposed 
to the introduction and traffic of spirituous liquors; and conse- 
quently the "spreeing" season of Alpena was not long, but it 
was not without its evil etfects. The wrifer had been much 
annoyed and injured in his business, at Devil river, by the sale 
of whiskey to his men, by one Walter Scott, who resided near 
the month of Thunder Bay river, and fished, looked pine lands, 
and traded with the Indians. A number of times his life and 
property had been in peril, duriug the drunken sprees of his 
men, and in one instance, his mill was shut down for a month, 
in consequeuce of a drunken spree of his men. 

Those who live in a well settled country or in a city where, 
if a man gets drunk and abusive, he is taken care of by the 
Sheriff, Constable, or the Police, can form no adequate idea of 
the annoyance, hardship and peril that liquor makes in a new 
place. There you must either abscond, or be prepared to de- 
fend youraelf by physical force. 

Ill the spring of 1862, the schooner Helen, from Saginaw, 
came into Thunder Bay river, to bring supplies for Walter 
Scott. This happened on Sunday, and some of the writer's 
men saw her come in, and knew that she would have liquor on 
board, as Scott had run out of that article toward spring. So 
two or three were delegated, by the others, to go to Thunder 
Bay river and bring three gallons of whiskey. We had finish- 
ed the winter's logging, and run the logs to the mill, and were 
intending to start the mill, to run night and day, that Sunday 
night, at midnight, but when the time came to start, we found 
only one man that could work, or could be trusted in the mil!. 
We had seen what was going on, and had placed in our pocket 
one of Colt's revolvers, as a protector, while watching the mill. 
Soon after daylight, in the morning, as we were standing in 
our door, we heard a loud noise in the men's sleeping room. 

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iicroBs the way, and sooii an old German came down tbe steps, 
bis face streumiiigwith blood, and following him were three or 
(our men. We stepped quickly forward, and as we passed into 
llie street, the old German passed us, going into the house. 
We asked, what was the matter, but received no response. 
We then passed on to meet the men, who said the German had 
committed some oPfeiise; had got drunk and went to bed and 
left them, and that they had gone to wake him up and give 
him h — 1. Before they got through with their "yarn," the 
German appeared with a shot gun, loaded with nine buck shot. 
As soon as they saw the German with the gun, there was a 
scattering, each one dixiging out of sight, as quick as possible, 
escept one who was standing close to us, and did not at once 
take in the situation, but when he did, he clung to us for dear 
life. The old German came within two rods of us, with the 
gun cocked and pointing at us, said i "Get out of the way or 
I will shoot. I will kill him." 

We told the old man that he would do wrong to shoot us, 
for we could not get out of the way of the man ; to put down 
his gun and go into the house, and we would settle the matter 
all right, and after talking, perhaps two minutes, which seemed 
a much longer time, he put down the gun and started for the 
house. As soon as the gun was laid down, the man behind us 
ran and seized it by the muzzle, and gave it a whack across a 
log and narrowly escaped setting the gun off, pointing at his 

In the meantime, those who had been hidden away, came 
out, swearing that they "would kill the Dutchman," and all 
made a rush for the house. We quickly made up our mind 
that we had bdsiness on hand, and we felt for our revolver and a 
small round stone, to grasp in the hand, to support it, and give 
weight to the blow, and started on the run for the hoase. 

A number had reached it before us, some with sticks and 
other things they had picked np. Two had reached the Ger- 

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man and were whacking away at him. As we went into the 
house, we reached from the shoulder, for every head that came 
in our way, until we came to the old man, whom we told to go 
upstairs, aud on obeyinf», we followed him to the stairway. 

By this time, those that their heads had come in contact with 
the hand that had the stone in it, were rushing for us, and to ^o 
up the stairs, when we turned round with the revolver in our hand, 
and with words well qualified, we told them that we would 
shoot the first man that made any more disturbance; for them 
to go home and get sober and pack up their things, for they 
would all be discharged, and go down on the schooner Helen. 

This made a quietus. We then sent the only sober man we 
had to Thunder Bay river, to engage the schooner to call at 
Devil river, on her way down. The next day the schooner 
came in, and, reluctantly, they all went aboard. Some were good 
men, and had been with us for a number of years, and we felt 
loth to let them go, but under the circumstances, we could not 
retain those and not the whole. 

We then went to Detroit, by the way of Thunder Bay Is- 
land, and hired a new crew of men and women, and put them 
on board a small propeller, called the Clifton, that had just 
started to run on the shore, from Detroit to Alpena, and came 
up as far as Port Austin. Here, the boat went into the har- 
bor, to discharge some freight, and in backing out, eho struck 
a rock and went on so fast, that she could not got off. AVe 
then took all our freight and persons on shore, found a place 
where the ladies could stay, and went into cainp with the men. 
We were here two weeks before any craft came in, that cotild 
take us to Saginaw. 

After reaching Bay City, we hired a craft to take us to Devil 
river, where we arrived, after four weeks' absence. Although 
we had succeeded in keeping the sale of liquor from Devil 
river, yet so long as it was sold within reach of the men, it was 
impossible to escape the pernicious effects of the occasional 



Sprees, and we were pleased to learn tliat the parties, about to 
operate at Fremont, were opposed to the sale of liquor. 

Soon after Mr. Miller came to Fremont, an informal meeting 
was had, at which were Daniel Carter, J. K. Miller, J. S. Ir- 
win, A. F, Fletcher, and the writer, and it was verbally under- 
stood and agreed to use all proper means to keep the sale of 
spirituous liquors from Devil river and Fremont. This was the 
first combination against whiskey, in the county, and although 
not very strongly bound together, yet firm enough to have 
kept whiskey from the place for a long time, had Mr. Miller 
not taken so much responsibility on himself, and left more 
for his neighbors. 

Several attempts were made to sell liquor from small boats, 
but they were severely dealt with, and generally quit the place 
in disgust. 

In 1859, J. K. Bingham came to Fremont, bringing with 
him a general assortment of goods, that he supposed would be 
needed in a new country, and among other things, a few bar- 
rels of assorted liquors. He saw Mr. Miller, and requested 
him to store the goods in his warehouse, for a few days, until 
he could build a store. Mr. Miller, learning that Mr. Bing- 
ham had liquors, refused to give it storage, and no other stoi'e- 
house being in the place, Mr. Bingham was compelled to pro- 
vide storage for his goods, which he did bj' landing them on 
the east side of the river, where he covered them with boards, 
set a watch over them day and night, and commenced to sell 
his liquors, and before Mr. Carter or the writer had any in- 
timation of the facts, the business had got so far established, 
that it would require more effort than they wished to accept, 
and more responsibility than they wished to incur, under the 
circumstances, to stop it. Mr. Bingham was a man of energy, 
had a fair education and address; bad considerable means, and 
much influence at that time, as Moses Bingham was his son, 
and had been in Fremont for some time, and he was acquaiut- 

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ed with Abram Hopper and others, from liis part of the State. 
He was not long in winning the respect and sympatliy of a 
largo portion o£ the citizens of the county. 

Had Mr. Miller quietly taken possession of the liquor, and 
then notified his frieodB what ho had, and all went to Mr. Bing- 
ham, in a body, and recjuested him to send the liquor away, 
and stating our reasons, he would have complied with our re- 
quests, and liquor, for a long time, might have been kept out 
of the place, with but little effort, had it been well directed. 

Mr. Miller was yery conscientious in regard to handling whis- 
key and tobacco, and so nttei'ly refused to have anything to do 
with Mr. Bingham's liquors, and for this hasty and conscientious 
act, he made an enemy of Mr, Bingham, alienated very miich 
the sympathies of friends, lost much of his influence among 
the people, and caused himself, for many years, to be treated 
with discourtesy, by those who were in favor of the liquor 
traffic, and which sometimes took on a form of open abuse, 
which was not approved by the majority. 

These abuses, after a time, extended to everyone who was 
opposed to seeing a drunken mob in the street, and finally cul- 
minated in a man, by the name of Crawford, being shot and 
killed. This was a sad affair, and created mnch excitement 
and heated discussion at the time, the details of which cau not, 
with propriety, be given heiv, or at this time. 

Whether this affair was a fortunate or unfortunate one, it did 
much good for the county. It made a line of demarkation be- 
tween rowdyism and law and order, and showed a large ma- 
jority for the latter. It showed the roughs, that they were not 
masters of the situation, as they supposed tht^y were, nor did 
they receive the sympathy they expected from the people. 

In 1867, a fiian by the name of Sprague, was arraigned be- 
fore the Circuit Court, for heading a drunken mob, and fined, 
and whiskey, in large quantities, ceased to abuse people in the 
streets, and marked the end of the spreeing time of Alpena. 

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The same causes, which produced a change in the spreeing, 
also divided the people, iu regard to the temperance question, 
and for some time a bitter feud was carried on between the 
parties. In February, 1870, a temperance organization was 
effected, called the Tf mperance League of Alpena, its object 
being the suppression of the liquor traffic, in the place. The 
officers of this powerful organization were: for President, Capt. 
A. E. Persons; for Secretary, F. S, Goodrich; for Treasurer, 
James J. Potter, and for executive committee, Wm. H, Potter, 
Scott Doaiie, Wm. D. Hit<.-hcock, Christopher Burrell and T. 
M. Luce. 

The following paper was drawn up, which explains itself: 

"We, the undersigned, agree to take the number of shai'fes set 
opjx)site our names, at S5.00 each, subject to such assessments 
as the Executive Committee of the Temperance League may 
find necessary to make, in order to carry on the work of or- 
ganization. The capital stock to be $2,000.00, or more." 

The names of the stock-holders are given, to show the 
power and influence of this combination against the sale of 
liquor. W. H. Potter, AV. J. Koe, A. E. Persons, T. M. Luce. 
Balfor Lee, J. J. Potter, Scott Doane, J. I>. Potter, Fr«l. S. 
Goodrich, W. D. Hitchcock, C. Burrell, F. H. Vroman, H. M. 
■Jacobs, J. C. Park, Robert Rayburn, Samuel Dafoe, E. K. Pot- 
ter, C. W. Vail, Henry S. Scage, B. R. Young, A. C. Tefft, 
A. N. Hpratt, J. W. Marshall, F. 8. Dewey, Benjamin Rich- 
ards, James Oglevie, H. Cook, Rev. F. N. Barlow, 0. G. Whit- 
ney, T. Lang Taylor, Z. M. Knight, M. B. Spiatt, A. Miller, 
G. W. Jones, A. Crowell, A. L. Powers A; Co, C. E. Wilcox, Wm. 
E. Kice, James Taggy, Thos. G. Sprntt, Herman Chamberlain, 
E. M. Raymond, Ghas. N. Cornell, H. M. Hyatt, A. Hopper, 
A. F. Fletcher, P. M. Johnson & Co., Folkerts & Bwtterfiehl, 
J. W. Van Horn. S. E. Hitchcock, C. H. Trask, W. H. Sexton, 
S. L. Meade, J. Van Dnsen, Fred Miller, Geo. R. Nicliolson, 
E. C. Bar!o«-, W. Nason, H, R, Morse, F. D. Spratt, 1>. G. 

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Aber, T. Luce & Co., E. White, E. Williams, 0. L. Kimball, 
Rev. A. B. Allen, D. Plough, C H. Eiee, Geo. Masters, W. 
MeMastere, J. S. Minor, Douglass Scott, A. L. Seaman, and 
Hugh Mellen. 

Many who were favorably inclined toward tlie temperance 
cause, refused to take stock in this combination, on account of 
the belligerent attitude, its extreme measures, and the bitter- 
ness then existing between the parties, alleging that action on 
the part of the Leagne, would endanger the property of Alpena. 
Among those were; Geo. N. Fletcher, David D. Oliver, Dan- 
iel Carter, and J. K. Lockwood. 

The League went into operation, and for two years a fierce 
struggle ensued with various vicissitudes of success and defeat, 
the details, or discussion of which, can not, with propriety, be 
given here, nor would they be amusing or instructive, if they 
could be. It is enough to say, that the League never accom- 
plished its object, and the animosity of the people was smoth- 
ered in the great fire in 1872, which swept away much of the 
cause of contention, and mingled the sympathies of the citizens 
in the great calamity that had overtaken both parties. Two 
criminal prosecutions wore made, growing out of the affair. 
Prejudice condemned the parties and sent them to prison, but 
justice liberated them, and sent them home, as nothing could 
be proved against them. 

It is to be regretted that the temperance cause has been so ex- 
treme and intemperate in its movements. Time, talent and 
money enough have been expended to have accomplished all 
necessary good that was sought, had it been properly directed. 
While it will be readily conceded that much good has been 
done to persons and localities, through the cause, yet it would 
require but little argument fo prove that it has utterly faile_d to 
destroy liquor or decrease its manufacture and sale. The obvi- 
ous reason is, that it has always tried to do too much at a time, 
and to have some events transpire before their antecedents ; or, in 

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other words, to do an impossibility. Whenever it asked and 
obtained a passage of law in its favov, it was always so stringent 
tliat it was impracticable, and only led to litigation, without any 
good result. Wlien the temperance organizations shall 
cease to be so extreme in their views, and change their bellig- 
erent attitnde— shall be willing to treat the opposition with 
as much respect and amiability as the Savior did Satan in the 
wilderuess^shail endeavor to modify the cause, rather than 
cure effects— prefer making their own drunkards, to having 
them made by others; then they will make some headway 
against the monster that is destroying its thousands every year, 
and has, by repeated liberties in the shape of strictures by the 
temperance cause, grown to its maximum of poisonous effects. 

The first society of Good Templars was organized some time 
in ISfiG, but for some cause, soon became disorganized, the rec- 
ords of which the writer has not been able to find. The pres- 
ent society of Good Templars was organized October 3d, 1873. 
under the name and style of Alpena lodge. No. 775, I. O. of G. 
T. The charter members were: J. J. Potter, D. P. Lester, 
R. M. Donnelly, John D. Potter, Alex. Campbell, Nettie Rid- 
dle, William Powell, J. D. Holmes, 1). B. Hagarty, Mark Young, 
Johnson Hamilton, with J. J. Potter first Worthy Chief Tem- 
plar. The following are the officers installed in Alpena lodge, 
No. 775, I. O. of G. T., May 5th, ISTfi: 

"W. C. T.— A. Harshaw. 

\V. V. T.— Miss Jennie Campbell. 

W. S.--J. C. Broekler. 

W. T.— H. A. McTavish. 

W. M.— C. C. Snider. 

W. I. G.— Miss Belle McKenzie. 

R. H .8.— Miss Belle McNeil. 

L. H. S.— Miss Enby Huston. 

W. C— H. J. Eaton. 

W. A. S, — Miss Mary Pickering. 

W. F. S.— James H. McDonald. 

W. D. M.— Miss Mary McTavish. 

W. O. G.— John B. Cole. 

Installing Offii'er, — Alex. Campbell, 

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We find the following prepared. On December 28th, 1869, 
being St. John's Day, the following officers were installed; 

W. M.— Seth L. Carpenter. 

S. W.— r. N. Barlow. 

J. W.— A. Hopper. 

Sec'y.— Charles Oldfield. 

Treas.— "William H. Potter. 

S. D.— W. E. Rice. 

J. D.— Geo. W. Hawkins. 

Stewards.^ John McKay, James A. Cose. 

Tyler. — Dennis Babeock. 

"The Alpena lodge of F. and A. M. has enjoyed a greater 
degree of pi'osperity than any other lodge of its age in tho 
State. It was organized in 1805, when our town was very 
small, and it was difficult to find Masons enough who would 
remain in town until we coiild establish a lodge. With true 
Masonic perseverence and industry, a dispensation was finally 
procured, and Bro. Wm. P. Maiden was appointed Master. No 
brother could have been called to preside over the lodge, who 
would have devoted more of his time, talent and energy than 
did Bro. Maiden. Thelodgeimmediately commenced to thrive 
and flourish in the most satisfactory manner. A hall was ele- 
gantly fitted up, over Hyatt's bakery, and a large class of the 
most excellent citizens knocked at the door for admittance. 
Every stranger admitted the work to be excellently done, and 
our membei's visiting other lodges were masters of their work. 
Bro. M. was elected in 1800, and re-elected in 1807, during 
which time the lodge has been in most excellent condition, an<l 
has found it necessary to procure a larger hall, which it has 
done, over the drug store. Bro. Maiden retires from the Mas- 
tership of the lodge, with a noble record anil the gratitude of 
all his fellows." Bro. Carpenter, who succeeds him, is an ex- 
cellent man and Mason, an accomplished scholar, and a worthy 

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citizen, and no doubt will discharge the duties of his office with 
ability and honor. Lodge 199, F. and A. M., was organized iii 
1865, but did no work until ISm, when they obtained a hall 
over Hyatt's meat market, and proceeded, under a dispensation, 
to open the first lodge, with the following officers and members: 

W. M.— William P. Maiden. 

a W.— Oriu Erskine. 

J. W. — Josiah Frink. 

Sec'y, — James K. Lockwood. 

Treas.— Clias. Eice. 

S. D, — James J. Potter. 

J. D.— David Plough. 

Stewards.— O. H. P. Allen, Clias. B. Greely. 

Tylei.— H. N. Harvey. 

Members: John Newton, P. M. Johnson, Robt. J. Taylor, 

A. C. Tefft, Geo. B. Erskine, and William Long. 

Second W. M., Seth L. Carpenter; third W. M., Ohas. H. 
Rice; fonrUi W. M., A. Hopper; fifth W. M., C. H. Rice; sixth 
AV. M., L. B. Howard, in 1870, 


Thunder Bay Chapter, No. 74, R. A. M., held its first convo- 
cation in Masonic hall, August 30th, 1870, working under a 
dispensation, but was chartered January 10th, 1871, the first 
officers of whieli were i 

High Pi-iest — Henry Bolton. 

King — Charles H, Rice. 

Scribe — William D. Hitchcock. 

Charter members: Henry Bolton. \\, D. Hitchcock. S. L. 
Carpenter, Alex. McDonald Chas. Oldfieid, A, C. Rice, Charles 
H. Eice, Geo. W. Hawkins, A. W. Smith, J. B. Erskine, Ciias. 

B. Greely, F. N. Barlow. 

Second Higlj Priest, A. Hopper; third High Priest, ^\'. D. 
Hitchcock ; fourth High Priest, Z. M. Knight. 

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In 1868. A County Eibie Society was organized, as auxili- 
ary to the American Bible Society, by the election of the fol- 
lowing officers: 

President — Kev. F. N. Barlow. 

Vice-President — C. L. Kimball. 

Corresponding Secretary— Rev. Rufus Aptborp. 

Treasurer — W. V. Hitchcock. 

Executive Committee --Rev. John Maywood, O. Mather, H. 
Hyatt, Benjamin Richards and M. B. Hpratt. 


Was organized in May, 1870, with the following officers; 

President — William D. Hitchcock. 

Vice-Prflsidents — C. T. Brockway and B. Richards. 

Corresponding Secretary — Dr. McSween. 

Recording Secretary — J. D. Holmes. 

The Board of Managers were as follows: A. R, Blakeiy, A. 
D. Hermance, B. Haywood, J. M. Blakoly and D. W. Camp- 


In September, 1868, the American Protestant Association 
was organized, at Evergreen Hall, entitled Pine Grove lodge 
No. 5. The first officers elected are as follows: John Kes- 
ten, W. M.; Ales. Campbell, W. D. M. ; John Smith, R. S., 
Dougal McArthur, F, S. ; James Dixon, A. S. ; William W^alfen- 
bui'y. Treasurer; John A. Sloan, Conductor; Henry Wickerson, 
Assistant Conductor; William Hamilton, Lt. ; W. H. Harvey, 
O. T.; J. R. Beach, Chaplain. 


The first uotice for the organization of a band, appeared in 
the Pioneer of the 20th of June, 1868, through the instance of 
the writer, who first agitated the matter, and donated the first 
fen dollars toward purchasing the instrnments, which cost the 

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MEloos ■ subjects: 185'. 

sum of $350. On August lat, 1868, the organization of the 
band was completed, by the election of the following officers: 

President — P. M. Johnson. 

Vice-President — Dr. Wm. P. Maiden. 

Secretary — A. Hopper. 

Treasurer— C. F, Lacy. 

Directors— R. 8. Toland, J. B. Tuttle, W. D. Hitchcock. 

The band was composed as follows: 

First E;» Cornet, Chas. F. Lacy. 

Second E6 Comet, F. A. Pennington. 

B6 Cornet, Chas. Goliing. 

First Alto, Geo. F. Howard. 

Second Alto, Thos. B. Johnston. 

Third Alto, Scott Doane. 

First B6 Tenor, Denton Sellick. 

Solo Baritone, Abram Hopper. 

Tuba, Sylvester "Williams. 

Tenor Drum, Kobert 8. Toland. 

Cymbals, Willie B. Bogge. 

Bass Dram, Joseph C Park. 

Mr. Howard. Teacher and Manager. 


In April, 1874, a meeting was called, for the purpose of 
forming an agricultural society, but no action was taken at this 
time; but on the 30th of May, when the citizens of Alpena 
county met and organized the Alpena County Agricnltnral So- 
ciety, by adopting a constitution and by-laws, and electing the 
following gentlemen directors to manage the affairs of the so- 
ciety for the first year: W, H. Potter, Seth A. L. Warner, J. 
K. Lockwood, James J. Potter, D. P. Buker, W. H. Phelps, 
James A. Case. Joseph Cavanagb, N. M. Brackinreed and W, 
H. Sanborn. The object of the society was the promotion ot 
agricultural, horticultural and domestic industry, by the use of 

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competition prizes. The officers shall be elected annnally, by 
ballot, and shall consiat of a President, a Vice-President in 
each organized township, who shall have the care of the soci- 
ety in his township, and shall be presiding officer of any meet- 
ing pertaining to the society in the absence of the President, a 
Secretary, Treasurer and Executive Committee. The by-laws 
give the general duties of the officers and the ^ 
ment of the society. 

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David D. Oliver, 
Daiiial Carter, 
James K. Locliwood, 
George N. Fletcher, 
Edward K. Potter, 
Mrs. Sarah L. Carter, 
William D. Hitchcock, 
Miss Mary L. Carter, 



Chapter I— Alpena County— Preliminary Remarks, 3 to 29 

Chapter II — Topographical and Geological, 80 to 46 

Chapter III— Organization, 47 to 76 

Chapter IV— Improvements, 77 to 124 

Chapter V— Fires and Fire Organizations, 125 to 136 

Chapter VI — Communication, 137 to 150 

Chapter VII— Educational, 151 to 163 

Chapter VIII— Judiciary, 164 to 167 

Chapter IX— Financial, 168 to 172 

Chapter X— Marriages, Births, Various Subjects, 173 to 186 

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